The rib showed partial healing, proving it to be an old wound. They would kill and eat man only as a last, or starving resort L. Here again, the bone pins are not described.
Pointed Weapons of Wood, Bone, and Ivory: Survival Tools of Early Man in North America
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The bones showed signs of butchering, however, proving that man had attacked again and had slain the mastodon at last Gustafson and Daugherty, Washington - Four fragments of a bone spearhead or foreshaft were found at the Marmes Site in southeastern Washington state. Indications are that the original length of the implement was perhaps mm.
The fragments were found associated with portions of a human skeleton and dated between 10, and 11, years BP Fryxell, et. Washington - The Lind Coulee Site in southeastern Washington has yielded three long, bone projectile points. One of these was serrated or barbed along one side; another, with a sharp point, was wedge-shaped on the opposite end. The last had a blunt point and was broken on the other end. This site has been dated between 9, and 10, years B.
Washington - Long, smooth bone points were found at a 9, B. These are thought to be portions ofleister fishing spears Kirk and Daugherty, This opinion agrees with the theories of the writer of this report Painter, California - Three broken bone weapon tips were found with bone scraps and ivory shims at what was perhaps a mammoth kill site on the ancient shore of China Lake, a dry lake bed in the Mojave Desert of Southern California.
California - A long, fossilized bone point was found on a site on Lower Klamath Lake in northern California. This point was stained by the blue silts of the lake; mammoth bones from the same locality were also stained blue.
The bone point was sharp at one end and beveled at the other Cressman, These bone objects are sometimes referred to as bone foreshafts in many reports. Saskatchewan - A fossilized bone projectile point was found in the early s near Grenfel, Saskatchewan. The point was found during an excavation of a waterhole in an ancient slough, and was discovered at a depth of 8 feet. No associations with man, animal, or other artifacts were noted. The projectile point is mm in length and has a diameter of The object tapers to a blunt point on one end and is broken on the other.
At the time when it was found, no others of this type had been reported and the discovery was long before Folsom and Clovis points were known.
Montana - The Anzick site, a collapsed rock-shelter near Wilsal, northwestern Montana, has yielded the first known Clovis burial, plus over stone and bone artifacts. The burial assemblage contained the remains of two sub-adults plus the artifacts and all were covered with red ochre Lahren and Bonnichsen, Among the artifacts recovered after the rock-shelter had been destroyed by a front-end loader were seven Clovis fluted points and eleven fragments of bone spearheads.
These bone fragments were fitted back together to reconstruct one section that has a blunt pointed end and a beveled and cross-striated opposite end, and one long section that is beveled and cross-striated on both ends. The remaining fragments consist of five broken midsections and four beveled and cross-striated ends Lahren and Bonnichsen, These authors have attempted to reconstruct these fragments as fore shafts for Clovis fluted points, with a rather flimsy manner of hafting the Clovis point to the socalled foreshaft.
The writer of this report disagrees with their proposed reconstructions and will propose other, more logical uses for these bone shafts. Wyoming - The Agate Basin site in eastern Wyoming has yielded bone projectile points in the bison bone beds of the Folsom Period level and an ivory projectile point in the Clovis level of this ancient bison kill site Frison and Zeimens, The Folsom level points, three in number, are tapered to a point on one end and cut off at a slight angle on the opposite end; all are broken but can be reconstructed.
They average about mm in length and 8. The ivory projectile point from the Clovis level is both longer and larger in diameter than the bone Folsom points. The Clovis specimen is mm in length with an undetermined amount broken off and it measures about 18 mm in diameter. It is beveled and cross-striated on one end and broken off on the opposite, but appears to be tapering toward a point.
Frison and Zeimens state that "It seems very unlikely that either the Clovis or Folsom specimens can be regarded as any kind of foreshaft. New Mexico - Blackwater Draw, the original Clovis type site, produced the first two bone spearhead elements associated with mammoth remains.
One bone spearhead portion was found in the sand at the distal end of a mammoth ulna. This bone spearhead portion is beveled and cross-striated on both ends, while the other example is pointed at one end and beveled and cross-striated at the opposite end Cotter, Cotter, recognized them as bone projectile point elements. This stretch of beach is one continuous archaeological site where at least fourteen Clovis fluted points have been found, plus more than other Indian artifacts of later time periods, principally Early Archaic.
It is also a source of fossil bone material representing many extinct types of fauna, all washed up from offshore beds of Pleistocene age. Among this array of material is one bone projectile point, a tapered, pointed cylinder of fossilized bone mm in length with a large diameter of 14 mm. Broken at one end, pointed at the other, it was definitely shaped by the hand of man Long, The Paleo-Indian sites of Florida that contain bone and ivory weapon points are without exception underwater sites, and the projectile points were recovered by scuba divers.
These weapon tips of bone and ivory were recovered from offshore in the Atlantic Ocean, sinkhole springs, and inland rivers of central, northern and northwestern Florida. These bone and ivory spearheads are called by the divers "bone pins" and they usually make no distinction between double-pointed, double-beveled, pointed and beveled, bone or ivory. In their reports and publications, all are called by the generic term "bone pins.
A great collection of these bone and ivory spearpoints and leister fishspear points are in the Florida State Museum at Gainesville, however, and this writer has examined a great number of specimens in company with Ripley and Adelaide Bullen in the museum storeroom.
This writer has talked with Ben Waller and other divers about the subject and viewed their collections. An unbelievable mass of Paleo-Indian lithic and bone material lies unreported and unstudied in these private collections and museums of Florida.
In an interview with Ben I. Waller recently published in the Florida Anthropologist Volume 36, Numbers , March-June , the interviewer asks "Do you think bone pins are an important Paleo tool?
Of course, I've been pushing that idea for years. I totally believe that they are the most common Paleo tool found in Florida. When I say pins, I am generally speaking of a double-pointed variety" Dunbar, Ben Waller once told this writer that he and others had recovered over eighty bone pins among the bones of a mammoth in a northern Florida river.
What a battle it took to bring this behemoth down. Florida - A Clovis-like fluted point flaked and shaped from bone was found embedded in a bone of a giant ground sloth. This unusual artifact was discovered near Moore Haven, central Florida, during the excavation of a drainage canal through a marsh.
A number of sloth bones were brought up from deep in the marsh by a dragline operator who saved them and turned them over to a local collector. This one-of-a-kind find was authenticated by Dr. Sears of Florida Atlantic University and Dr. There can be little doubt that chipped or flaked bone or ivory projectile points preceded or accompanied lithic projectile points in Europe, Asia, and North America. A flaked willow-leaf-shaped ivory projectile was recovered from the Berelekh site in Siberia Mochanov, , and bone and antler points of various types are found with lithic points in later cultures, but a "fluted" bone point is indeed unique.
Jenks and Simpson point out the similarity between their finds and the points found by Cotter at the Clovis or Blackwater Draw site in New Mexico. Beneath the shipwreck is an undisturbed Pleistocene strata containing among other things a mineralized human cranium, a lithic projectile joint, bone pins, and fossil remains of horse, camel, and mammoth. This proves that sites do exist on the Continental Shelf offshore, and such sites as this have great potential for solving the mysteries of migration and evolving lithic and bone industries of Early Man.
Work continues on this wreck site Cockrell and Murphy, a and b. Florida - The Guest Mammoth Kill Site Silver Springs, north-central Florida, has yielded three bone pins, a small, nondiagnostic lithic projectile point, a broken bannerstone, plus mammoth skeletons Dunbar and Waller, Here again, the bone pins are not described. Florida - The Santa Fe River in northern Florida has yielded great quantities of Paleo-Indian tools and weapons in conjunction with Pleistocene animal bones, principally mammoth.
Speaking of an unspecified site on the Santa Fe, where mammoth bones were eroding out of the bank, Ben Waller said, "We found one whole and one broken Paleo point and these were the only two pieces of flint in the area.
We also found a number of bone pins at this site. Over one hundred lithic Paleo-Indian projectile points have been recovered in an area of by feet. Florida - Sites on northern Florida rivers have produced great quantities of archaeological and paleontological specimens from the Pleistocene epoch, but oddly enough, two of these rivers have produced more bone pins than the others. Again we must quote Ben Waller: But perhaps more significant were the other sites with tremendous quantities of bone pins associated with elephant remains.
These sites were in the Steinhatchee and Auchilla Rivers. I have seen two of the elephant sites and have heard of a third one.
The people who found the sites recovered tremendous quantities of these pins. Waller goes on to state that "people who have seen the Steinhatchee elephant sites agree that bone pins were common in early tool kits. This writer agrees with Ben Waller, but must add that they must have been common in Early Man tool kits in other areas of North America as well, though conditions for good bone preservation were lacking in most other regions.
The rivers, sinkholes, and offshore sites of Florida may well hold the key to the enigma that is Early Man in North America, at least Southeastern North America. These bone and ivory shafts and their associated beveled, cross-striated, and pointed sections have been termed hide fleshers, bone foreshafts for lithic fluted points, bone objects, bone rods, bone shafts, bone pins, bone leisters, and elements or components of both spears and leisters.
This writer considers or proposes that they are indeed "spearheads" and their "mending" or "splicing" parts Figure 2 and 3 and sometimes "leisters" and their component parts Figure 4 Painter, The writer proposes also that these spearheads and their splicing sections be termed "needle-spears" Painter, to describe their proposed function as weapons intended for the deep penetration of the bodies of large animals and as a term to simplify the many lengthy descriptive names now being used.
Those bone specimens that qualify as leisters fishspears may be termed "bone leisters" and "leister components" Painter, The above described bone spearheads and their repair or splicing sections shall be referred to henceforth in this paper as "needlespears" and "needle-spear components. When we speak of "mending components," "repair elements" or "splicing parts," we are referring to those segments of needle-spears that exhibit long, unifacial bevelling on one or both ends Figures 2 and 3.
We propose that these represent broken needle-spears that have been bevelled and sometimes cross striated in order to splice, mend, repair, or reunite the broken sections together again. The overlapping joint was perhaps filled with some type of glue or adhesive Lahren and Bonnichsen, and tightly wrapped with sinew or fine twisted cord. Horizontal striations were often cut on the convex side opposite the bevel in order to keep the sinew binding from slipping Figures 2, 3, and 4.
Since the whole purpose of the needle-spear was deep penetration, and the longer the needle-spear the deeper the wound, it follows that one would not simply resharpen a broken needle-spear since that would often shorten it by more than half. By bevelling each broken half, overlapping the bevelled faces in a splice joint, the mended needle-spear would only be about one-and-one-half inches 37 mm shorter than before Figure 3 and only slightly larger in diameter at the mended joint. Since needle-spears required much time and effort in their manufacture, it seems logical that such repairing would be very economical.
Repairing a broken needle-spear in the manner described would require only a very small fraction of the time needed to manufacture a new weapon. Repairs such as this could be made while on a hunting foray when needle-spears were badly needed. The splicing or joining of bone and ivory needle-spear sections may well have served a purpose other than the repair of broken spearpoints, however, since the splicing of unbroken sections together to obtain greater length may have been practiced also.
The average length of reported needle-spears seems to be about mm 10 inches , although lengths up to mm 13 inches have been noted. The writer proposes that the maximum length required by Early Man may well have been as much as mm to mm 16 to 18 inches in some cases such as the hunting of mammoths.
In order to obtain needle-spears of such great lengths when mammoth femurs were not available, the splicing of two or more shorter bone sections may have sufficed. It is also quite possible that most needle-spears were initially made as long as 16 to 18 inches before breakage, splicing, and resharpening took place in the course of their utilization.
The writer came to the foregoing conclusions concerning the form, function, construction and uniting of bone and ivory needle-spear and leister components after two visits to the Florida State Museum study collections in the late s. After comparing the Florida specimens to others illustrated in reports from Asia, Europe, and other areas of North America the component parts of the puzzle all seemed to fall into place. This is the logical though still unproven answer to the utilization of the oft-recurring groups of bone and ivory components being found in the three continents.
As viewed from the standpoint of Early Man, the problem of meat procurement and the length of time involved in weapon manufacturing makes the quick-killing potential of the long needle-spear and the short time needed in its repair and alteration very economical and practical indeed.
It is logical also, that needle-spears were socketed into a long wooden spearshaft Figures 3 and 4 and were easily detached or withdrawn from the socket. This made it practical to carry only one or two wooden spearshafts but a great number of needle-spears contained in a sheath or quiver. After a spear was forced deep into the body of an animal, the skin and flesh would often form a vacuum on the needle-spear and hold the weapon fast when the spearshaft was withdrawn. It was at this stage also that many needle-spears were broken off deep in the body of the prey, leaving a portion of the spear still in the socket.
In either case a spare needle-spear could be quickly socketed into the shaft and another strike could be made. The broken spear segment would be retained and those portions still in the animal would be recovered if possible and mended for reuse.
The Florida mammoth containing eighty "bone pins" either got away or was never butchered. One of the many unanswered questions confronting archaeologists is the problem of penetrating the skin of a mammoth. Experiments have been conducted on the bodies of modern elephants African or Indian both living and dead. These experiments were made using hand-thrown and hand-thrust spears tipped with both bone and lithic projectile points, and the results were negative. A hand-thrown or hand-thrust spear could not penetrate far enough to reach the vitals through the thick, tough, leathery skin of a modern elephant Stanford, ; Haynes, The following is quoted from a personal communication from Dr.
It was like trying to penetrate a piece of 8-play truck tire on a slippery sphere of jelly. We have to re-examine the ways in which these weapons may have been used. Back to spear-throwers atlatls are the answer, but no conclusive experiments have yet been made. And you will have your own admin page to manage it.
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