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What is involved would be million years of summer, winter, rain, snow, droughts, floods, earthquakes, crustal movement, perhaps a million or more of these events and yet this bone with its organic matter is still there. Osteoarthritis can affect both the larger and smaller joints of the human skeleton. Mark's micrographs have appeared on the covers of eleven scientific journals, and he has many technical publications on microscopic phenomena in such journals as American Laboratory, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, Parasitology Research, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy Today and Acta Histochemica, among others. Sanderson wrote about the figurine in the Julsrud collection. Scientists have discovered a very large asteroid impact site in Antarctica. In February , he was asked to teach a full graduate course in Biological Imaging for the Biology Department. Critics charged that the findings were mistaken or that what she called soft tissue was really biofilm produced by bacteria that had entered from outside the bone.


In other projects Wikimedia Commons. It can make up from 1 to 6 percent of muscle mass. Her report in confirmed the presence of collagen and other proteins that bacteria do not make. Some techniques can even estimate the age of the ancient teeth and bones directly. In a letter dated September 13, , addressed to Mr. Triceratops 1, a ceratopsid dinosaur. The solution was simple.

They did not like the test results, so they censored them. Carbon is considered to be a highly reliable dating technique. It's accuracy has been verified by using C to date artifacts whose age is known historically. The fluctuation of the amount of C in the atmosphere over time adds a small uncertainty, but contamination by "modern carbon" such as decayed organic matter from soils poses a greater possibility for error.

Thomas Seiler, a physicist from Germany, gave the presentation in Singapore. He said that his team and the laboratories they employed took special care to avoid contamination.

That included protecting the samples, avoiding cracked areas in the bones, and meticulous pre-cleaning of the samples with chemicals to remove possible contaminants. Knowing that small concentrations of collagen can attract contamination, they compared precision Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS tests of collagen and bioapatite hard carbonate bone mineral with conventional counting methods of large bone fragments from the same dinosaurs.

These, together with many other remarkable concordances between samples from different fossils, geographic regions and stratigraphic positions make random contamination as origin of the C unlikely". The theoretical limit for C dating is , years using AMS, but f or practical purposes it is 45, to 55, years.

The half-life of C is years. If dinosaur bones are 65 million years old, there should not be one atom of C left in them. Many dinosaur bones are not petrified. Mary Schweitzer, associate professor of marine, earth, and atmospheric sciences at North Carolina State University, surprised scientists in when she reported finding soft tissue in dinosaur bones. She started a firestorm of controversy in and when she reported that she had sequenced proteins in the dinosaur bone. Critics charged that the findings were mistaken or that what she called soft tissue was really biofilm produced by bacteria that had entered from outside the bone.

Schweitzer answered the challenge by testing with antibodies. Her report in confirmed the presence of collagen and other proteins that bacteria do not make. In , a Swedish team found soft tissue and biomolecules in the bones of another creature from the time of the dinosaurs, a Mosasaur, which was a giant lizard that swam in shallow ocean waters.

Schweitzer herself wonders why these materials are preserved when all the models say they should be degraded. That is, if they really are over 65 million years old, as the conventional wisdom says. Dinosaur bones with Carbon dates in the range of 22, to 39, years before present, combined with the discovery of soft tissue in dinosaur bones, indicate that something is indeed wrong with the conventional wisdom about dinosaurs.

However, it has been hard to reach the public with the information. Despite being simple test results without any interpretation, they were blocked from presentation in conference proceedings by the North American Paleontological Convention, the American Geophysical Union in and , the Geological Society of America in and , and by the editors of various scientific journals.

Fortunately, there is the internet. Carbon in dinosaur bones download more details. Detwiler; in MA Cretaceous sandstone - identified by Dr. Allosaurus is a carnivorous dinosaur excavated in by the J. Hadrosaur 1, a duck billed dinosaur. Bone fragments were excavated in along Colville River by G. Hadrosaur 2, a duck billed dinosaur. Kline team of the Glendive Dinosaur and Fossil Museum.

It was sawed open by the O. Miller team in to retrieve samples for C testing. Triceratops 1, a ceratopsid dinosaur. A lone femur bone was excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 6 18N by 39 22W in Montana by the O. Triceratops 2, a very large ceratopsid-type dinosaur excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 02 44N and 32 49W in Montana by the O.

Kline team of Glendive Dinosaur and Fossil Museum. Outer bone fragments of a femur were tested for C Hadrosaur 3, a duck billed dinosaur. Scrapings were taken from a large bone excavated by Joe Taylor of Mt. Scrapings were taken from a rib still imbedded in the clay soil of a ranch in CO, partially excavated in and , in Ma late Jurassic strata by C. Bow is the bulk organic fraction of whole bone; Col is collagen fraction; w or ext is charred, exterior or whole bone fragments; Hum is humic acids.

Bioapatite is a major component of the mineralised part of bones. It incorporates a small amount of carbonate as a substitute for phosphate in the crystal lattice. Charred bone is the description given by lab personnel for blackened bone surfaces. Proteins that are the main component of connective tissue. Yet it is found in four-foot long, nine-inch diameter dinosaur femur bones claimed to be greater than 65 million years old.

The "Modified Longin Method" is the normal purification method for bone collagen. Libby, the discoverer of Radiocarbon dating and Nobel Prize winner, showed that purified collagen could not give erroneous ages. Click to see a You Tube video of the conference presentation. Click to see the conference schedule for presentation of abstract BGA at On the conference website, the abstract was removed from position number 5.

Click to see where it had been on the Conference website. This is what happens when you try to get members of the academic community involved: Click to see the YouTube video. Banned by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies. From through the Paleochronology group had 11 dinosaur bone samples carbon dated by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, and for good reason.

Senior research scientist Alexander Cherkinsky specializes in the preparation of samples for Carbon testing. He directed the pretreatment and processing of the dinosaur bone samples with the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, though he did not know the bones were from dinosaurs, and he signed the reports. Carbon dating at this facility is certainly the very best. But in , someone told the director of the facility, Jeff Speakman, that the Paleochronology group was showing the Carbon reports on a website and YouTube and drawing the obvious conclusions.

So when he received another bone sample from the Paleochronology group, he returned it to sender and sent an email saying: The scientists at CAIS and I are dismayed by the claims that you and your team have made with respect to the age of the Earth and the validity of biological evolution.

Consequently, we are no longer able to provide radiocarbon services in support of your anti-scientific agenda. I have instructed the Radiocarbon Laboratory to return your recent samples to you and to not accept any future samples for analysis. Notice that he did not say the radiocarbon reports of the dinosaur bone samples were inaccurate. No, his objection was that the Paleochronology group was using the reports as evidence that dinosaurs lived thousands, not millions, of years ago.

So I asked him 3 times over 3 weeks what is the right conclusion to draw from the test results they provided us; then I asked his entire scientific staff. None of them had an answer.

This is an attitude we have encountered among members of academia: A nyone who challenges the established truth is made an enemy. The threat hangs over everyone. A manager of a commercial laboratory that does Carbon dating, Beta Analytic Inc. Her interest led us to propose that her company perform a Carbon test on a T-rex bone we acquired.

Thanks for considering our service in this project. We wish you well in your research but must choose to opt-out of the analysis. Since you have identified it as T-rex, and these are known to be extinct for 50 million years, it is beyond the limit of our dating. If a "recent" result was derived it would be universally challenged with possible risks of poor result claims for our laboratory.

This is a project much better suited for collaboration with a university laboratory. It has demonstrated both the technical competency and management system requirements necessary to consistently deliver technically valid test results. These standards are universally recognized as the highest level of quality attainable by a testing laboratory. Mark Armitage and the triceratops horn.

Mark was suddenly terminated by the Biology Department when his discovery of soft tissues in a Triceratops horn was published in Acta Histochemica. The university claimed his appointment at had been temporary and claimed a lack of funding for the position.

This was news to him, and contradicted prior statements and documents from the university. Mark Armitage has a MS degree in biology and has been a microscope scientist microscopist for 30 years.

He was the president of the Southern California Society for Microscopy for several years. He has some 30 publications to his credit. Mark's micrographs have appeared on the covers of eleven scientific journals, and he has many technical publications on microscopic phenomena in such journals as American Laboratory, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, Parasitology Research, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy Today and Acta Histochemica, among others.

According to papers filed with the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, when Mark Armitage interviewed for an opening at CSUN for a "regular" "part-time" microscopist in he told the panel that he had published materials supportive of creationism.

William Krohmer, Manager of Technical Services and Safety, who would be Armitage's direct supervisor, was on the panel.

The panel hired Armitage despite his creationist writings because of his exceptional qualifications. The position was Electron Microscopy Technician in the Department of Biology, working two ten-hour days per week. He was "permanent part-time" and was allowed to enroll in the full benefits package of the university. He ran the Microscopy Imaging Facility with its three electron microscopes, personally training students and faculty on their proper use. He was often praised for his work and accomplishments.

The Biology Department bought a new confocal microscope that used high-powered lasers for imaging and was computer-driven. Armitage supervised the installation of the new microscope. They must have had some sort of watercraft to get there. Then they could have used watercraft to come down the west coast of North America to California quite early. Unbroken mastodon ribs and vertebrae. Bones indicate human processing at an archaeological site in the US , years ago. The findings have been met with skepticism within the scientific community.

The lack of human remains, plus the wealth of evidence suggesting a far later arrival has left many questioning the results. It is surprising to not find more elaborated tools or cutmarks for processing the meat. If it were a more archaic hominin then we would be assuming that they were able of moving up to Beringia or crossing the Pacific, something that to our knowledge only H.

Even if it were Homo neanderthalensis or Homo erectus, the type of marks and tools left behind would be more elaborated an unequivocal. Evidence shows that late descendants of Homo erectus perhaps including so-called Denisovans lived in eastern Asia at that time so could be good candidates. The study authors said they expect a certain level of skepticism and invite scholars to analyze the evidence further.

Next, they plan to look through other archaeological material in the archives to see if they can find additional evidence of humans in the Americas at this time. Weekly magazine, delivered Daily Newsletter Website access. Close-up of a spirally fractured mastodon femur bone. The stone tools used appear to have been made by early humans. See all of the best photos of the week in these slideshows First humans in the Americas? Pictures of the Week: Request Reprint or Submit Correction.

Nasal flaring is a sign of respiratory distress that involves widening of the nostrils on inspiration. Because of the special nature of the blood supply to the human nose and surrounding area, it is possible for retrograde infections from the nasal area to spread to the brain.

For this reason, the area from the corners of the mouth to the bridge of the nose, including the nose and maxilla , is known to doctors as the danger triangle of the face. Specific systemic diseases, infections or other conditions that may result in destruction of part of the nose for example, the nasal bridge, or nasal septal perforation are rhinophyma , skin cancer for example, basal cell carcinoma , granulomatosis with polyangiitis , systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis , tuberculosis , syphilis , leprosy and exposure to cocaine , chromium or toxins.

The nose may be stimulated to grow in acromegaly. Some people choose to get rhinoplasty to change the aesthetic appearance of their nose. Nose piercings are also common, such as nostril, septum or bridge. The Hanazuka monument enshrines the mutilated noses of at least 38, Koreans killed during the Japanese invasions of Korea from to The septal cartilage of the nose can be destroyed through repeated nasal inhalation of drugs such as cocaine.

This in turn can lead to more widespread collapse of the nasal skeleton. Nose-picking is a common, mildly taboo habit. Medical risks include the spread of infections, nosebleeds and, rarely, self-induced perforation of the nasal septum.

The wiping of the nose with the hand, commonly referred to as the " allergic salute ", is also mildly taboo and can result in the spreading of infections as well. Habitual as well as fast or rough nose wiping may also result in a crease known as a transverse nasal crease or groove running across the nose, and can lead to permanent physical deformity observable in childhood and adulthood.

Nose fetishism or nasophilia is the sexual fetish or paraphilia for the nose. The psychiatric condition of extreme nose picking is termed rhinotillexomania. In certain Asian countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Bangladesh rhinoplasty is common to create a more developed nose bridge or "high nose".

Rae of the American Museum of Natural History said primate and arctic animal studies have shown sinus size reduction in areas of extreme cold rather than enlargement in accordance with Allen's rule. Rae concludes that the design of the large and prognathic Neanderthal nose was evolved for the hotter climate of the Middle East and was kept when the Neanderthals entered Europe.

An article published in the speculative journal Medical Hypotheses suggested that the nose is an alteration of the angle of skull following human skeletal changes due to bipedalism. This changed the shape of the skull base causing, together with change in diet, a knock-on morphological reduction in the relative size of the maxillary and mandible and through this a "squeezing" of the protrusion of the most anterior parts of the face more forward and so increasing nose prominence and modifying its shape.

The aquatic ape hypothesis relates the nose to a hypothesized period of aquatic adaptation in which the downward-facing nostrils and flexible philtrum prevented water from entering the nasal cavities. Stephen Jay Gould has noted that larger noses are less neotenous , especially the large " Grecian " nose.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Human nose Human nose in profile. Anatomy of the human nose. Te Ara — the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 8 September A History of Japan, —

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Neanderthals and modern humans: Spiral fractures along some of the limb bones indicate they had been broken shortly after the animal had died. Somewhere in the Indian ocean is thought to be where the giant asteroid struck that produced this giant wave.

dating human bones

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