Brown, Pascal Philippot Coal is not water soluble at least, coal cars aren't covered, and no one seems to worry about thunderstorms dissolving the coal away , and wood is waterproof, so one would expect that coalified wood would also be waterproof. Many ancient lava flows are relatively flat, in contrast to modern ones. Potassium is found to be very mobile under leaching conditions.
Even the initial ratios of parent and daughter elements in the earth do not necessarily indicate an age as old as 4. Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present by Schweitzer, Wittmeyer, Horner. We have successfully used this technique to prepare and date samples of bone and of tooth enamel and dentin, with varying degrees of preservation condition, and from time intervals ranging from a few hundred Carbon years to greater than 40, Carbon years. Mineralized soft-tissue structure and chemistry in a mummified hadrosaur from the! Identical human twins who die of natural causes typically die more than 10 years apart. They've built a rigorous scientific case for the survival of 68 million-year-old proteins from a beast that animates children's imaginations.
Some fossils consist only of skeletal remains or teeth; other fossils contain traces of skin , feathers or even soft tissues. This is a form of diagenesis. In some cases the original remains of the organism completely dissolve or are otherwise destroyed. The remaining organism-shaped hole in the rock is called an external mold. If this hole is later filled with other minerals, it is a cast. An endocast or internal mold is formed when sediments or minerals fill the internal cavity of an organism, such as the inside of a bivalve or snail or the hollow of a skull.
This is a special form of cast and mold formation. If the chemistry is right, the organism or fragment of organism can act as a nucleus for the precipitation of minerals such as siderite, resulting in a nodule forming around it. If this happens rapidly before significant decay to the organic tissue, very fine three-dimensional morphological detail can be preserved.
Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such mineralization. Replacement occurs when the shell, bone or other tissue is replaced with another mineral. In some cases mineral replacement of the original shell occurs so gradually and at such fine scales that microstructural features are preserved despite the total loss of original material.
A shell is said to be recrystallized when the original skeletal compounds are still present but in a different crystal form, as from aragonite to calcite. Compression fossils , such as those of fossil ferns, are the result of chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules composing the organism's tissues. In this case the fossil consists of original material, albeit in a geochemically altered state.
This chemical change is an expression of diagenesis. Often what remains is a carbonaceous film known as a phytoleim, in which case the fossil is known as a compression. Often, however, the phytoleim is lost and all that remains is an impression of the organism in the rock—an impression fossil.
In many cases, however, compressions and impressions occur together. For instance, when the rock is broken open, the phytoleim will often be attached to one part compression , whereas the counterpart will just be an impression. For this reason, one term covers the two modes of preservation: Because of their antiquity, an unexpected exception to the alteration of an organism's tissues by chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules during fossilization has been the discovery of soft tissue in dinosaur fossils, including blood vessels, and the isolation of proteins and evidence for DNA fragments.
Based on various experiments that studied the interaction of iron in haemoglobin with blood vessel tissue they proposed that solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances the stability and preservation of soft tissue and provides the basis for an explanation for the unforeseen preservation of fossil soft tissues. Carbonaceous films are thin coatings which consist predominantly of the chemical element carbon.
The soft tissues of organisms are made largely of organic carbon compounds and during diagenesis under reducing conditions only a thin film of carbon residue is left which forms a silhouette of the original organism. Bioimmuration occurs when a skeletal organism overgrows or otherwise subsumes another organism, preserving the latter, or an impression of it, within the skeleton. Sometimes the bioimmured organism is soft-bodied and is then preserved in negative relief as a kind of external mold.
There are also cases where an organism settles on top of a living skeletal organism that grows upwards, preserving the settler in its skeleton. Bioimmuration is known in the fossil record from the Ordovician  to the Recent. Paleontology seeks to map out how life evolved across geologic time. A substantial hurdle is the difficulty of working out fossil ages. Beds that preserve fossils typically lack the radioactive elements needed for radiometric dating.
Radioactive elements are common only in rocks with a volcanic origin, and so the only fossil-bearing rocks that can be dated radiometrically are volcanic ash layers, which may provide termini for the intervening sediments.
Consequently, palaeontologists rely on stratgraphy to date fossils. Stratigraphy is the science of deciphering the "layer-cake" that is the sedimentary record. If a fossil is found between two layers whose ages are known, the fossil's age is claimed to lie between the two known ages. However, fossils of species that survived for a relatively short time can be used to match isolated rocks: For instance, the conodont Eoplacognathus pseudoplanus has a short range in the Middle Ordovician period.
Such index fossils must be distinctive, be globally distributed and occupy a short time range to be useful. Misleading results are produced if the index fossils are incorrectly dated. However, this is difficult for some time periods, because of the problems involved in matching rocks of the same age across continents. It is also possible to estimate how long ago two living clades diverged, in other words approximately how long ago their last common ancestor must have lived, by assuming that DNA mutations accumulate at a constant rate.
These " molecular clocks ", however, are fallible, and provide only approximate timing: Organisms are only rarely preserved as fossils in the best of circumstances, and only a fraction of such fossils have been discovered.
The transition itself can only be illustrated and corroborated by transitional fossils, which will never demonstrate an exact half-way point. The fossil record is strongly biased toward organisms with hard-parts, leaving most groups of soft-bodied organisms with little to no role. These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition.
Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria. Stromatolites were much more abundant in Precambrian times. While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae.
One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia. The earliest stromatolite of confirmed microbial origin dates to 2.
A discovery provides strong evidence of microbial stromatolites extending as far back as 3. Stromatolites are a major constituent of the fossil record for life's first 3. The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victims to grazing creatures the Cambrian substrate revolution , implying that sufficiently complex organisms were common over 1 billion years ago.
The connection between grazer and stromatolite abundance is well documented in the younger Ordovician evolutionary radiation ; stromatolite abundance also increased after the end-Ordovician and end-Permian extinctions decimated marine animals, falling back to earlier levels as marine animals recovered.
Factors such as the chemistry of the environment may have been responsible for changes. While prokaryotic cyanobacteria themselves reproduce asexually through cell division, they were instrumental in priming the environment for the evolutionary development of more complex eukaryotic organisms. Cyanobacteria as well as extremophile Gammaproteobacteria are thought to be largely responsible for increasing the amount of oxygen in the primeval earth's atmosphere through their continuing photosynthesis.
Cyanobacteria use water , carbon dioxide and sunlight to create their food. A layer of mucus often forms over mats of cyanobacterial cells. In modern microbial mats, debris from the surrounding habitat can become trapped within the mucus, which can be cemented by the calcium carbonate to grow thin laminations of limestone. These laminations can accrete over time, resulting in the banded pattern common to stromatolites.
The domal morphology of biological stromatolites is the result of the vertical growth necessary for the continued infiltration of sunlight to the organisms for photosynthesis.
Layered spherical growth structures termed oncolites are similar to stromatolites and are also known from the fossil record. Thrombolites are poorly laminated or non-laminated clotted structures formed by cyanobacteria common in the fossil record and in modern sediments. The Zebra River Canyon area of the Kubis platform in the deeply dissected Zaris Mountains of south western Namibia provides an extremely well exposed example of the thrombolite-stromatolite-metazoan reefs that developed during the Proterozoic period, the stromatolites here being better developed in updip locations under conditions of higher current velocities and greater sediment influx.
Index fossils also known as guide fossils, indicator fossils or zone fossils are fossils used to define and identify geologic periods or faunal stages. They work on the premise that, although different sediments may look different depending on the conditions under which they were deposited, they may include the remains of the same species of fossil. The shorter the species' time range, the more precisely different sediments can be correlated, and so rapidly evolving species' fossils are particularly valuable.
The best index fossils are common, easy to identify at species level and have a broad distribution—otherwise the likelihood of finding and recognizing one in the two sediments is poor.
Trace fossils consist mainly of tracks and burrows, but also include coprolites fossil feces and marks left by feeding. Many traces date from significantly earlier than the body fossils of animals that are thought to have been capable of making them.
Coprolites are classified as trace fossils as opposed to body fossils, as they give evidence for the animal's behaviour in this case, diet rather than morphology. They were first described by William Buckland in Prior to this they were known as "fossil fir cones " and " bezoar stones.
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group. Because of the incompleteness of the fossil record, there is usually no way to know exactly how close a transitional fossil is to the point of divergence. These fossils serve as a reminder that taxonomic divisions are human constructs that have been imposed in hindsight on a continuum of variation.
Microfossil is a descriptive term applied to fossilized plants and animals whose size is just at or below the level at which the fossil can be analyzed by the naked eye. Microfossils may either be complete or near-complete organisms in themselves such as the marine plankters foraminifera and coccolithophores or component parts such as small teeth or spores of larger animals or plants. Microfossils are of critical importance as a reservoir of paleoclimate information, and are also commonly used by biostratigraphers to assist in the correlation of rock units.
Fossil resin colloquially called amber is a natural polymer found in many types of strata throughout the world, even the Arctic. The oldest fossil resin dates to the Triassic , though most dates to the Cenozoic. The excretion of the resin by certain plants is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation for protection from insects and to seal wounds. Fossil resin often contains other fossils called inclusions that were captured by the sticky resin.
These include bacteria, fungi, other plants, and animals. Animal inclusions are usually small invertebrates , predominantly arthropods such as insects and spiders, and only extremely rarely a vertebrate such as a small lizard. Preservation of inclusions can be exquisite, including small fragments of DNA. Fossil wood is wood that is preserved in the fossil record. Wood is usually the part of a plant that is best preserved and most easily found. Fossil wood may or may not be petrified.
The fossil wood may be the only part of the plant that has been preserved: This will usually include "xylon" and a term indicating its presumed affinity, such as Araucarioxylon wood of Araucaria or some related genus , Palmoxylon wood of an indeterminate palm , or Castanoxylon wood of an indeterminate chinkapin. The term subfossil can be used to refer to remains, such as bones, nests, or defecations, whose fossilization process is not complete, either because the length of time since the animal involved was living is too short less than 10, years or because the conditions in which the remains were buried were not optimal for fossilization.
Subfossils are often found in caves or other shelters where they can be preserved for thousands of years. See below, 42 minutes into Paul Giem's presentation. Thus, where researchers find both soft tissue and 14c, especially in small bones as with the mosasaur , the claim that the biological tissue is dinosaurian and is not contamination works exactly against the claim that the 14c is from contamination.
The inventor of the radiocarbon dating method, Dr. Walter Libby, stated in the journal Science, "There is no known natural mechanism by which collagen may be altered to yield a false age. Here's our RSR explanation of why this is. Because new carbon atoms will not replace original carbon atoms in the collagen molecule.
As a result of decomposition, to the extent that original carbon atoms were falling out of the tissue so to speak , then to that extent you would no longer have collagen; rather, to that extent you would have humic acid. Decomposing collagen cannot be "repaired" by free carbon atoms happening upon the decomposition. Rather, the collagen must be manufactured within a living animal with its constituent carbon atoms into a " super-super-coil In addition to work already done documenting appreciable 14c levels even in contamination-resistant specimens, we recommend a few experiments including a couple proposed by RSR friend David Willis: The young earth model predicts the finding of significant quantities of carbon 14 throughout the bone.
The evolutionary model would predict no modern carbon in such a bone, but as a secondary assumption, if 14c is found, since any contaminating material would have to pass through the outer layers of the bone to get into the center, the contamination explanation would expect to measure generally decreasing percentages of 14c from the outside to the center of each individual bone.
A second experiment, beginning as above, would be to date a small diameter bone and a larger diameter bone from the same dinosaur. Getting the same dates would help rule out contamination because the smaller bone will have a larger surface to volume ratio which, if contamination were a significant factor, should result in higher percentages of modern carbon.
A third experiment that could falsify contamination as a possible source of 14c involves: With the announcement that these reserves in Siberia contain diamonds that are "twice as hard as normal", these will be ideal for 14c dating because their natural hardness would further rule out contamination.
Also, evolutionary geologists claim that these diamonds were already ancient when, allegedly 35 million years ago, a meteor impacted above them.
The evolutionary model predicts no carbon dead 14c. The young earth model predicts significant quantities of 14c measurable throughout the diamond. A fourth experiment that could falsify contamination as a possible source of 14c involves radiocarbon dating of allegedly million-year-old amber, by selecting pristine specimens, the condition of which may also help to rule out contamination.
At the 7th ICC Dr. Dating bones in situ , and dating their surrounding matrix, will elimate various sources of possible contamination and provide significant additional data. Published by RSR on Aug. Consider then, the fossil remains of organisms that had lived near the surface but that have been long buried in ocean sediments. If neutron capture were responsible for much of the unexpected 14c, then collectively, such ocean specimens, collectively, should have far less 14c than specimens excavated on the continents.
Further, more analysis should be done on relevant specimens excavated from uranium mines , comparing their radiocarbon percentages to similar in type and estimated date specimens gathered away from uranium mines.
Thus, marine deposit specimens and uranium mine specimens can function as control groups. Regardless though, for an uncontaminated specimen like diamonds, pure collagen, dinosaur soft tissue, etc.
Out of every trillion Carbon atoms in the atmosphere, only about one is 14c. Further, significant unknowns, both in the rates of 14c production in the atmosphere, and in the Earth's enormous geologic upheaval in the past, could have altered the 1,,,,to-1 ratio.
Henry Richter , the NASA scientist who launched our first satellite, oversaw development of the scientific equipment used on the first lunar missions, and who played an important role in the early discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt. By the way, Dr. Though it may be an extremely negligible source, of the various emissions from radioactive decay alpha particles, beta particles, etc. A lone femur bone was excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 6 18N by 39 22W in Montana by the O.
Triceratops 2, a very large ceratopsid-type dinosaur excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 02 44N and 32 49W in Montana by the O. Kline team of Glendive Dinosaur and Fossil Museum.
Outer bone fragments of a femur were tested for C Hadrosaur 3, a duck billed dinosaur. Scrapings were taken from a large bone excavated by Joe Taylor of Mt.
Scrapings were taken from a rib still imbedded in the clay soil of a ranch in CO, partially excavated in and , in Ma late Jurassic strata by C. Bow is the bulk organic fraction of whole bone; Col is collagen fraction; w or ext is charred, exterior or whole bone fragments; Hum is humic acids. Bioapatite is a major component of the mineralised part of bones.
It incorporates a small amount of carbonate as a substitute for phosphate in the crystal lattice. Charred bone is the description given by lab personnel for blackened bone surfaces. Proteins that are the main component of connective tissue.
Yet it is found in four-foot long, nine-inch diameter dinosaur femur bones claimed to be greater than 65 million years old. The "Modified Longin Method" is the normal purification method for bone collagen. Libby, the discoverer of Radiocarbon dating and Nobel Prize winner, showed that purified collagen could not give erroneous ages.
Click to see a You Tube video of the conference presentation. Click to see the conference schedule for presentation of abstract BGA at On the conference website, the abstract was removed from position number 5. Click to see where it had been on the Conference website. This is what happens when you try to get members of the academic community involved: Click to see the YouTube video.
Banned by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies. From through the Paleochronology group had 11 dinosaur bone samples carbon dated by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, and for good reason. Senior research scientist Alexander Cherkinsky specializes in the preparation of samples for Carbon testing. He directed the pretreatment and processing of the dinosaur bone samples with the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, though he did not know the bones were from dinosaurs, and he signed the reports.
Carbon dating at this facility is certainly the very best. But in , someone told the director of the facility, Jeff Speakman, that the Paleochronology group was showing the Carbon reports on a website and YouTube and drawing the obvious conclusions.
So when he received another bone sample from the Paleochronology group, he returned it to sender and sent an email saying: The scientists at CAIS and I are dismayed by the claims that you and your team have made with respect to the age of the Earth and the validity of biological evolution. Consequently, we are no longer able to provide radiocarbon services in support of your anti-scientific agenda. I have instructed the Radiocarbon Laboratory to return your recent samples to you and to not accept any future samples for analysis.
Notice that he did not say the radiocarbon reports of the dinosaur bone samples were inaccurate. No, his objection was that the Paleochronology group was using the reports as evidence that dinosaurs lived thousands, not millions, of years ago.
So I asked him 3 times over 3 weeks what is the right conclusion to draw from the test results they provided us; then I asked his entire scientific staff. None of them had an answer. This is an attitude we have encountered among members of academia: A nyone who challenges the established truth is made an enemy.
The threat hangs over everyone. A manager of a commercial laboratory that does Carbon dating, Beta Analytic Inc. Her interest led us to propose that her company perform a Carbon test on a T-rex bone we acquired. Thanks for considering our service in this project. We wish you well in your research but must choose to opt-out of the analysis.
Since you have identified it as T-rex, and these are known to be extinct for 50 million years, it is beyond the limit of our dating. If a "recent" result was derived it would be universally challenged with possible risks of poor result claims for our laboratory. This is a project much better suited for collaboration with a university laboratory. It has demonstrated both the technical competency and management system requirements necessary to consistently deliver technically valid test results.
These standards are universally recognized as the highest level of quality attainable by a testing laboratory. Mark Armitage and the triceratops horn. Mark was suddenly terminated by the Biology Department when his discovery of soft tissues in a Triceratops horn was published in Acta Histochemica.
The university claimed his appointment at had been temporary and claimed a lack of funding for the position. This was news to him, and contradicted prior statements and documents from the university.
Mark Armitage has a MS degree in biology and has been a microscope scientist microscopist for 30 years. He was the president of the Southern California Society for Microscopy for several years. He has some 30 publications to his credit. Mark's micrographs have appeared on the covers of eleven scientific journals, and he has many technical publications on microscopic phenomena in such journals as American Laboratory, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, Parasitology Research, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy Today and Acta Histochemica, among others.
According to papers filed with the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, when Mark Armitage interviewed for an opening at CSUN for a "regular" "part-time" microscopist in he told the panel that he had published materials supportive of creationism.
William Krohmer, Manager of Technical Services and Safety, who would be Armitage's direct supervisor, was on the panel. The panel hired Armitage despite his creationist writings because of his exceptional qualifications. The position was Electron Microscopy Technician in the Department of Biology, working two ten-hour days per week. He was "permanent part-time" and was allowed to enroll in the full benefits package of the university.
He ran the Microscopy Imaging Facility with its three electron microscopes, personally training students and faculty on their proper use.
He was often praised for his work and accomplishments. The Biology Department bought a new confocal microscope that used high-powered lasers for imaging and was computer-driven. Armitage supervised the installation of the new microscope. He was assigned to be the only instructor on it, with responsibility for control and supervision of the instrument. In February , he was asked to teach a full graduate course in Biological Imaging for the Biology Department. In March , Dr.
Oppenheimer sent an email to staff saying that the two days per week that Armitage was working needed to be expanded in order to facilitate the growing demands of the microscopy lab. In June , Dr. Ernest Kwok was made chairman of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab, and became Armitage's new supervisor.
In the summer of , Armitage responded to an invitation to participate in a search for dinosaur fossils in Glendive, Montana in the famous Hell Creek formation. He found the brow-horn of a triceratops; it was not petrified. Studying the horn at the CSUN lab, he discovered soft tissue in the supposedly million-year-old or more fossil. While teaching students how to use microscopes in the lab that he directed at CSUN, Armitage engaged them in brief socratic dialogue about the possible age of the horn.
Kwok's students was stunned by the discovery and implications of soft tissue in the triceratops horn, and told Dr. On June 12, , Dr. Kwok stormed into Armitage's lab and shouted, "We are not going to tolerate your religion in this department! Armitage reported this to the Biology Department chair, Dr. They both played down the event and told Armitage to forget it.
Praise for Armitage's work continued from distinguished members of the Biology Department. In November , a photo of the soft tissue in the triceratops horn was published on the cover of American Laboratory magazine. The former chair of the Biology Department, Dr.
Oppenheimer, wrote a ringing endorsement of Armitage in a letter of recommendation. On February 12, , the journal Acta Histochemica published a paper by Armitage describing the discovery of soft tissue in the triceratops horn. Acta Histochemica is a peer-reviewed journal of structural biochemistry of cells and tissue that welcomes advanced microscopical imaging; it has been publishing since On the day the paper was published, Dr.
Kwok called a secret meeting of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab. Armitage had served on the committee for three years, but he was not invited. The committee decided to terminate Armitage. On February 19, , William Krohmer told Armitage that there was a "witch hunt" being mounted against him, and advised him to resign.
When he refused to resign, Krohmer told him he would be terminated. Armitage was fired on February 27, He was told that his job had only been a "temporary appointment". There is a sidenote to this story. Hugh Miller, head of the Paleochronology group, obtained a bone sample from the triceratops horn Mark Armitage discovered. As you can see, the bone was dated by them to 33, years before present. The data for their four dinosaurs is below.
A remarkable find was published in the journal Nature in April The "bone bed is characterized by the presence of completely disarticulated skeletal elements at various stages of embryonic development".
Iamges: dinosaur fossil radiocarbon dating
A spring rumor has it that Mary Schweitzer has carbon dated soft tissue dinosaur specimens but has not released the results. And organocopper is a compound in organic chemistry. It also needs to be determined whether the daughter products for methods other than uranium-lead dating also yield isochrons among the different meteorites.
If you know of a web page where this is described, please email that link to Bob kgov. Radiometric dating has shown that the earliest known stromatolites are over 3.
Each of the clay pieces had been individually made, without molds, skillfully sculptured, and carefully decorated. I was referencing the article in The Columbus Dating apps for ios 4.2.1 saying that Miller obtained a dozen samples from the Carnegie Museum in So when one datign all of the above figures, the statement that datiny are only 10 percent anomalies or 5 percent or whatever, does dinosaur fossil radiocarbon dating have any meaning any more. I treated this issue of percentage of anomalies in considerable detail in my original "Radiometric Dating Game" article. Extrusive bodies are lava that is deposited on the surface. This could move the "ages" to tremendously high values. Paul Giem himself, graded the information dinosaur fossil radiocarbon dating below.
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