Chinese Filipino - Wikipedia

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Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations. Many are not as economically prosperous as the Minnan Hokkienese. They did it as a tight-knit group in an enclosed system by setting up their own distribution networks, locating major players, geographical coverage, location characteristics, business strategies, staff recruitment, store proliferation, and trade organizations.

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A temporary intervention at the Barcelona Pavilion I rub my eyes in disbelief, dazzled by its appearance. Kazakhstan Dungan Kyrgyzstan Dungan. Most of the elites of Philippine society during that time was made up of both Spanish mestizos and Chinese mestizos. Most Chinese Filipinos attend Chinese Filipino schools until Secondary level, and then transfer to non-Chinese colleges and universities to complete their tertiary degree, due to the dearth of Chinese language tertiary institutions. Separation is defined as the rejection the dominant or host culture in favor of preserving their culture of origin, often characterized by the presence of ethnic enclaves.

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The election of Ferdinand Marcos to the Philippine presidency brought forth much of the changes within the Chinese Filipino community. Following the recognition of the People's Republic of China as the sole representative of the Chinese government, and at the same time fearful of harboring Chinese nationals whose loyalty will shift to the newly recognized Communist government [ citation needed ] , Marcos ordered a revision of all existing nationality laws which led to an easier acquisition of Philippine citizenship, which most Chinese Filipinos took advantage of.

This signified a major leap for the community, majority of which now owes loyalty to Manila , rather than to Taipei or Beijing. In relation to this, Chinese schools, which were governed by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China Taiwan , were transferred under the jurisdiction of the Philippine government's Department of Education.

Virtually all Chinese schools were ordered closed or else to limit the time allotted for Chinese language, history, and culture subjects from 4 hours to 2 hours, and instead devote them to the study of Filipino languages and culture. Marcos' policies eventually led to the formal assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos into mainstream Filipino society.

The mass nationalization of ethnic Chinese during the s eventually led to the eventual assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos as an integral part of the Philippines. However, there were still pressing problems that face the community. Despite President Aquino's Chinese ancestry, the initial proliferation of anti-Chinese sentiments among some Filipinos and the sudden attainment of freedom from Martial Law under President Marcos led to several crimes being committed against Chinese Filipinos.

These include rampant extortion, kidnapping, and even murder. Unity for Progress by Teresita Ang-See, [n 1] which called for mutual understanding between the ethnic Chinese and the native Filipinos.

Aquino encouraged free press and cultural harmony, a process which led to the burgeoning of the Chinese-language media. While anti-Chinese sentiments were toned down, crimes against the Chinese Filipinos, particularly kidnapping, further blossomed throughout the presidencies of Fidel Ramos — , and Joseph Estrada — Virtually all Chinese in the Philippines belong to either the Hokkienese- or Cantonese-speaking groups of the Han Chinese ethnicity.

Most Filipino-Chinese now are second or third generation, natural-born Philippine citizens who can still look back to their Chinese roots and have Chinese relatives both in China as well as in other Southeast Asian or Australasian or North American countries.

In there was a large massacre of around 20, Chinese, mostly of Fujianese Hoklo descent. The location was in Manila's Parian de los Sangleyes the Chinese quarter , and in another huge mass killing of Chinese of Minnan origin. The Minnan form The Minnan Hokkienese currently dominate the light industry and heavy industry, as well as the entrepreneurial and real estate sectors of the economy.

Many younger Minnan people are also entering the fields of banking, computer science, engineering, finance, and medicine.

To date, most emigrants and permanent residents from Mainland China, as well as the vast majority of Taiwanese people in the Philippines are Minnan Hokkienese people. They began to migrate in small numbers to the Philippines during the Spanish Period, but were eventually absorbed by intermarriage into the mainstream Hokkienese. Many also settled in the provinces of Northern Luzon e. Many are not as economically prosperous as the Minnan Hokkienese.

Barred from owning land during the Spanish Colonial Period, most Cantonese were into the service industry, working as artisans, barbers, herbal physicians, porters coulis , soap makers, and tailors. They also had no qualms in intermarrying with the local Filipinos and most of their descendants are now considered Filipinos, rather than Chinese or Chinese mestizos. During the early s, Chinese migration from Cantonese-speaking areas in China to the Philippines trickled to almost zero, as migrants from Hokkienese-speaking areas gradually increased, explaining the gradual decrease of the Cantonese population.

Presently, they are into small-scale entrepreneurship and in education. There are also some ethnic Chinese from nearby Asian countries and territories, most notably Malaysia , Indonesia , Vietnam , and Hong Kong who are naturalized Philippine citizens and have since formed part of the Chinese Filipino community.

Many of them are also Hokkien speakers, with a sizeable number of Cantonese and Teochew speakers. Temporary resident Chinese businessmen and envoys include people from Beijing , Shanghai , and other major cities and provinces throughout China. The exact number of all ethnic Chinese in the Philippines is unknown. The National Statistics Office does not conduct surveys of ethnicity.

According to a research report by historian Austin Craig who was commissioned by the United States in to ascertain the total number of the various races of the Philippines, the pure Chinese, referred to as Sangley , number around 20, as of , and that around one-third of the population of Luzon have partial Chinese ancestry. This comes with a footnote about the widespread concealing and de-emphasising of the exact number of Chinese in the Philippines.

The vast majority The use of Minnan Hokkien as first language is seemingly confined to the older generation, as well as in Chinese families living in traditional Chinese bastions, such as Binondo in Manila and Caloocan. In part due to the increasing adoption of Philippine nationality during the Marcos era, most Chinese Filipinos born from the s up to the mids tend to use Filipino or other Philippine regional languages, frequently admixed with both Minnan and English.

Among the younger generation born mids onward , the preferred language is English. Recent arrivals from Mainland China or Taiwan, despite coming from traditionally Minnan-speaking areas, typically use Mandarin among themselves.

Unlike other Overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia which featured a multiplicity of dialect groups, Chinese Filipinos descend overwhelmingly from Minnan -speaking regions in Fujian province. Mandarin , however, is perceived as the prestigious dialect, and it is used in all official and formal functions within the Chinese community, despite the fact that very few Chinese are conversant in Mandarin. For the Chinese mestizos, Spanish used to be the important commercial language and the preferred first language at the turn of the century.

Starting from the American period, the use of Spanish gradually decreased and is now completely replaced by either English or Filipino. Since most of the Chinese in the Philippines trace their ancestry to the southern part of Fujian province in China, Minnan, otherwise known as Hokkienese is the lingua franca of Chinese Filipinos.

The variant of Minnan or Hokkienese spoken in the Philippines, Philippine Hokkien, is called locally as lan-lang-oe , meaning, "our people's language". Philippine Hokkien is mutually intelligible with other Minnan variants in China, Taiwan, and Malaysia, and is particularly close to the variant of Minnan spoken in Quanzhou. Its unique features include the presence of loanwords Spanish, English, and Philippine language , excessive use of colloquial words e.

Due to the relatively small population of Chinese Filipinos who are Cantonese, most of them, especially the new generation, never learned Cantonese. Mandarin is the medium of instruction of Chinese subjects in Chinese schools in the Philippines. However, since the language is rarely used outside of the classroom, most Chinese Filipinos would be hard-pressed to converse in Mandarin, much less read books using Chinese characters. As a result of longstanding influence from the Ministry of Education of the Overseas Chinese Affairs Council of the Republic of China Taiwan since the early s up to , the Mandarin variant taught and spoken in the Philippines closely mirror that of Taiwan.

While Traditional Chinese characters and the Bopomofo phonetic system are still used, instead of the Simplified characters and Pinyin phonetic system currently being used in both Mainland China and Singapore. As with English, the majority of Chinese Filipinos speak the Philippine language of the region where they live e. Spanish was an important language of the Chinese-Filipino, Chinese-Spanish, and Tornatras Chinese-Spanish-Filipino mestizos during most of the 20th century. Most of the elites of Philippine society during that time was made up of both Spanish mestizos and Chinese mestizos.

Many of the older generation Chinese mainly those born before WWII , whether pure or mixed, can also understand some Spanish, due to its importance in commerce and industry.

Chinese Filipinos or Filipino-Chinese have a trilingual facility which they use in everyday life. During informal, as well as local business transactions, codeswitching between Minnan Philippine Hokkien , English, and Filipino is very common and comes naturally, as a result of having to maintain command of all three languages in the spheres of home, school, and greater Philippine society.

Other places where this code-switching is observed are academic institutions, restaurants, religious institutions, phone calls, and houses. Unique to the Catholicism of Chinese Filipinos is the religious syncretism that is found in Chinese Filipino homes.

It is not unheard of to venerate the Blessed Virgin Mary using joss sticks and otherwise Buddhist offerings, much as one would have done for Guan Yin or Mazu. In contrast to Roman Catholicism, Protestantism forbids traditional Chinese practices such as ancestor veneration, but allows the use of meaning or context substitution for some practices that are not directly contradicted in the Bible e.

Many also had ancestors already practicing Protestantism while still in China. Unlike ethnic Filipino-dominated Protestant churches in the Philippines which have very close ties with North American organizations, most Protestant Chinese Filipino churches instead sought alliance and membership with the Chinese Congress on World Evangelization , an organization of Overseas Chinese Christian churches throughout Asia. Buddhist and Taoist temples can be found where the Chinese live, especially in urban areas like Manila.

There are very few Chinese Filipino Muslims , most of whom live in either Mindanao or the Sulu Archipelago, and have intermarried or assimilated with their Moro neighbors. Many of them have attained prominent positions as Islamic political leaders.

Some younger generations of Chinese Filipinos also profess to be atheists. There are Chinese schools that exist throughout the Philippines, slightly more than half of which operate in Metro Manila.

The first school founded specifically for Chinese in the Philippines, the Anglo-Chinese school now known as Tiong Se Academy was opened in inside the Chinese Embassy grounds. The first curriculum called for rote memorization of the four major Confucian texts Four Books and Five Classics , as well as Western science and technology.

This was followed suit by the establishment of other Chinese schools, such as Hua Siong College of Iloilo established in Iloilo in , the Chinese Patriotic School established in Manila in and also the first school for Cantonese Chinese, Saint Stephen's High School established in Manila in and was the first sectarian school for the Chinese, and Chinese National School in Cebu in Burgeoning of Chinese schools throughout the Philippines as well as in Manila occurred from the s until the s, with a brief interlude during World War II, when all Chinese schools were ordered closed by the Japanese, and their students were forcibly integrated with Japanese-sponsored Philippine public education.

Such situation continued until , when amendments made to the Philippine Constitution effectively transferred all Chinese schools to the authority of the Republic of the Philippines ' Department of Education. Teaching hours relegated to Chinese language and arts, which featured prominently in the pre Chinese schools, were reduced.

Lessons in Chinese geography and history, which were previously subjects in their own right, were integrated with the Chinese language subjects, whereas, the teaching of Filipino and Philippine history, civics, and culture became new required subjects. The changes in Chinese education initiated with the Philippine Constitution led to the large shifting of mother tongues and assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos to general Philippine society. The older generation Chinese Filipinos who were educated in the old curriculum typically used Chinese e.

Chinese Filipino schools typically feature curriculum prescribed by the Philippine Department of Education. The limited time spent in Chinese instruction consists largely of language arts. Chinese history, geography, and culture are integrated in all the three core Chinese subjects - they stood as independent subjects of their own before All Chinese subjects are taught in Mandarin Chinese, and in some schools, students are prohibited from speaking English, Filipino, or even Hokkien during Chinese classes.

Most Chinese Filipinos attend Chinese Filipino schools until Secondary level, and then transfer to non-Chinese colleges and universities to complete their tertiary degree, due to the dearth of Chinese language tertiary institutions. Most Chinese Filipinos, particularly the younger generation, now follow the typical Western naming convention given name, then family name , albeit with English first names coupled with Chinese surnames.

Many Chinese who lived during the Spanish naming edict of eventually adopted Spanish name formats, along with a Spanish given name e. Chinese mestizos, as well as some Chinese who chose to completely assimilate into the Filipino or Spanish culture adopted Spanish surnames. Newer Chinese migrants who came during the American Colonial Period use a combination of an adopted Spanish or rarely, English name together with their Chinese name e. As both exposure to North American media as well as the number of Chinese Filipinos educated in English increased, the use of English names among Chinese Filipinos, both common and unusual, started to increase as well.

Popular names among the second generation Chinese community included English names ending in "-son" or other Chinese-sounding suffixes, such as Anderson , Emerson , Patrickson , Washington , among such others.

For parents who are already third and fourth generation Chinese Filipinos, English names reflecting American popular trends are given, such as Ethan , Austin , and Aidan. It is thus not unusual to find a young Chinese Filipino named Chase Tan whose father's name is Emerson Tan and whose grandfather's name was Elpidio Tan Keng Kui , reflecting the depth of immersion into the English language as well as into the Philippine society as a whole.

Many also took on Spanish or Filipino surnames e. Today, it can be difficult to identify who are Chinese Filipinos based on surnames alone. A phenomenon common among Chinese migrants in the Philippines dating from the s would be purchasing of surnames , particularly during the American Colonial Period, when the Chinese Exclusion Act was applied to the Philippines. Such law led new Chinese migrants to 'purchase' the surnames of Filipinos and thus pass off as long time Filipino residents of Chinese descent, or as ethnic Filipinos.

Sometimes, younger Chinese migrants would circumvent the Act through adoption - wherein a Chinese with Philippine nationality adopts a relative or a stranger as his own children, thereby giving the adoptee automatic Filipino citizenship - and a new surname. On the other hand, most Chinese Filipinos whose ancestors came to the Philippines prior to use a Hispanicized surname see below.

These were originally full Chinese names which were transliterated into Spanish and adopted as surnames. There are also multiple syllable Chinese surnames that are Spanish transliterations of Hokkien words. Many Filipinos who have Hispanicized Chinese surnames are no longer full Chinese, but are Chinese mestizos.

Traditional Tsinoy cuisine, as Chinese Filipino home-based dishes are locally known, make use of recipes that are traditionally found in China's Fujian province and fuse them with locally available ingredients and recipes. These include unique foods such as hokkien chha-peng Fujianese-style fried rice , si-nit mi-soa birthday noodles , pansit canton Fujianese-style e-fu noodles , hong ma or humba braised pork belly , sibut four-herb chicken soup , hototay Fujianese egg drop soup , kiampeng Fujianese beef fried rice , machang glutinous rice with adobo , and taho a dessert made of soft tofu, arnibal syrup, and pearl sago.

However, most Chinese restaurants in the Philippines, as in other places, feature Cantonese , Shanghainese and Northern Chinese cuisines, rather than traditional Fujianese fare.

With the increasing number of Chinese with Philippine nationality, the number of political candidates of Chinese Filipino descent also started to increase. The most significant change within Chinese Filipino political life would be the citizenship decree promulgated by former President Ferdinand Marcos which opened the gates for thousands of Chinese Filipinos to formally adopt Philippine citizenship.

Chinese Filipino political participation largely began with the People Power Revolution of which toppled the Marcos dictatorship and ushered in the Aquino presidency. The Chinese have been known to vote in blocs in favor of political candidates who are favorable to the Chinese community. Many ambassadors and recent appointees to the presidential cabinet are also Chinese Filipinos like Arthur Yap.

The Chinese Filipinos are mostly business owners [ according to whom? These mostly small or medium enterprises play a significant role in the Philippine economy.

A handful of these entrepreneurs run large companies and are respected as some of the most prominent business tycoons in the Philippines. Chinese Filipinos attribute their success in business to frugality and hard work, Confucian values and their traditional Chinese customs and traditions. They are very business-minded and entrepreneurship is highly valued and encouraged among the young.

Most Chinese Filipinos are urban dwellers. In contrast with the Chinese mestizos, few Chinese are plantation owners.

This is partly due to the fact that until recently when the Chinese Filipinos became Filipino citizens, the law prohibited the non-citizens, which most Chinese were, from owning land. As with other Southeast Asian nations, the Chinese community in the Philippines has become a repository of traditional Chinese culture common to unassimilated ethnic minorities throughout the world.

Whereas in mainland China many cultural traditions and customs were suppressed during the Cultural Revolution or simply regarded as old-fashioned nowadays, these traditions have remained largely untouched in the Philippines. Many new cultural twists have evolved within the Chinese community in the Philippines, distinguishing it from other overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia.

The Chinese Filipinos have developed unique customs pertaining to weddings, birthdays, and funerary rituals. Certain customs found among Chinese Filipinos include the following: During supplication kiu-hun , a solemn tea ceremony within the house of the groom ensues where the couple will be served tea, egg noodles misua , and given ang-paos red packets containing money.

During the supplication ceremony, pregnant women and recently engaged couples are forbidden from attending the ceremony. Engagement ting-hun quickly follows, where the bride enters the ceremonial room walking backward and turned three times before being allowed to see the groom.

A welcome drink consisting of red-colored juice is given to the couple, quickly followed by the exchange of gifts for both families and the Wedding tea ceremony, where the bride serves the groom's family, and vice versa. The engagement reception consists of sweet tea soup and misua, both of which symbolizes long-lasting relationship. Before the wedding, the groom is expected to provide the matrimonial bed in the future couple's new home. A baby born under the Chinese sign of the Dragon may be placed in the bed to ensure fertility.

He is also tasked to deliver the wedding gown to his bride on the day prior to the wedding to the sister of the bride, as it is considered ill fortune for the groom to see the bride on that day. For the bride, she prepares an initial batch of personal belongings ke-chheng to the new home, all wrapped and labeled with the Chinese characters for sang-hi.

On the wedding date, the bride wears a red robe emblazoned with the emblem of a dragon prior to wearing the bridal gown, to which a pair of sang-hi English: Before leaving her home, the bride then throws a fan bearing the Chinese characters for sang-hi toward her mother to preserve harmony within the bride's family upon her departure. Most of the wedding ceremony then follows Catholic or Protestant traditions.

Post-Wedding rituals include the two single brothers or relatives of the bride giving the couple a wa-hoe set, which is a bouquet of flowers with umbrella and sewing kit , for which the bride gives an ang-pao in return. After three days, the couple then visits the bride's family, upon which a pair of sugar cane branch is given, which is a symbol of good luck and vitality among Hokkien people.

Birthday traditions of Chinese Filipino involves large banquet receptions, always featuring noodles [50] and round-shaped desserts. All the relatives of the birthday celebrant are expected to wear red clothing which symbolize respect for the celebrant. Wearing clothes with a darker hue is forbidden and considered bad luck.

During the reception, relatives offer ang paos red packets containing money to the birthday celebrant, especially if he is still unmarried. For older celebrants, boxes of egg noodles misua and eggs on which red paper is placed are given. Births of babies are not celebrated and they are usually given pet names, which he keeps until he reaches first year of age. The Philippine custom of circumcision is widely practiced within the Chinese Filipino community regardless of religion, albeit at a lesser rate as compared to ethnic Filipinos.

Funerary traditions of Chinese Filipinos mirror those found in Fujian. A unique tradition of many Chinese Filipino families is the hiring of professional mourners which is alleged to hasten the ascent of a dead relative's soul into Heaven.

This belief particularly mirrors the merger of traditional Chinese beliefs with the Catholic religion. Chinese Filipinos, especially in Metro Manila, are also divided into several social types. These types are not universally accepted as a fact, but are nevertheless recognized by most Chinese Filipinos to be existent. These reflect an underlying generational gap within the community.: Most of the Chinese mestizos, especially the landed gentry trace their ancestry to the Spanish era.

They are the "First Chinese" or Sangley whose descendants nowadays are mostly integrated into Philippine society. Most are from Guangdong province in China, with a minority coming from Fujian.

They have embraced a Hispanized Filipino culture since the 17th century. After the end of Spanish rule, their descendants, the Chinese mestizos, managed to invent a cosmopolitan mestizo culture [ citation needed ] coupled with an extravagant Mestizo de Sangley lifestyle, intermarrying either with ethnic Filipinos or with Spanish mestizos.

The largest group of Chinese in the Philippines are the "Second Chinese," who are descendants of migrants in the first half of the 20th century, between the anti-Manchu Revolution in China and the Chinese Civil War. This group accounts for most of the "full-blooded" Chinese.

They are almost entirely from Fujian province. The "Third Chinese" are the second largest group of Chinese, the recent immigrants from Mainland China, after the Chinese economic reform of the s.

Generally, the "Third Chinese" are the most entrepreneurial and have not totally lost their Chinese identity in its purest form and seen by some "Second Chinese" as a business threat.

Meanwhile, continuing immigration from Mainland China further enlarge this group [53]. Aside from their family businesses, Chinese Filipinos are active in Chinese oriented civic organizations related to education, health care, public safety, social welfare and public charity.

As most Chinese Filipinos are reluctant to participate in politics and government, they have instead turned to civic organizations as their primary means of contributing to the general welfare of the Chinese community. Beyond the traditional family and clan associations, Chinese Filipinos tend to be active members of numerous alumni associations holding annual reunions for the benefit of their Chinese-Filipino secondary schools. Outside of secondary schools catering to Chinese Filipinos, some Chinese Filipino businessmen have established charitable foundations that aim to help others and at the same time minimize tax liabilities.

Luke's Medical Center, Inc. In the arts and culture, the Bahay Tsinoy and the Yuchengco Museum were established by Chinese Filipinos to showcase the arts, culture and history of the Chinese. It is also used in other Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia and Singapore by Hokkien speaking ethnic Chinese to refer to peoples of Malay ancestry. The term itself means "barbarian" since the Chinese people considered anyone beyond their borders as outsiders.

Chinese Filipinos generally perceive the government and authorities to be unsympathetic to the plight of the ethnic Chinese, especially in terms of frequent kidnapping for ransom.

While the vast majority of older generation Chinese Filipinos still remember the rabid anti-Chinese taunts and the anti-Chinese raids and searches done by the Bureau of Internal Revenue BIR and Bureau of Immigration, most of the third or fourth generation Chinese Filipinos generally view the Philippine people and government positively, and have largely forgotten about the historical oppression of the ethnic Chinese.

They are also most likely to consider themselves as "Filipino" and support the Philippines, rather than China or Taiwan. Chinese mestizos are persons of mixed Chinese and either Spanish or indigenous Filipino ancestry. A number of Chinese mestizos have surnames that reflect their heritage, mostly two or three syllables that have Chinese roots e. During the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish authorities encouraged the Chinese male immigrants to convert to Catholicism.

Those who converted got baptized and their names Hispanized, and were allowed to intermarry with indigenous women. They and their mestizo offspring became colonial subjects of the Spanish crown, and as such were granted several privileges and afforded numerous opportunities denied to the unconverted, non-citizen Chinese.

Starting as traders, they branched out into landleasing, moneylending and later, landholding. Chinese mestizo men and women were encouraged to marry Spanish and indigenous women and men, [ citation needed ] by means of dowries, [ citation needed ] in a policy to mix the races of the Philippines so it would be impossible to expel the Spanish.

In these days however, blood purity is still of prime concern in most traditional Chinese-Filipino families especially pure-blooded ones.

The Chinese believe that a Chinese must only be married to a fellow Chinese since the marriage to a Filipino or any outsider was considered taboo. Chinese marriage to Filipinos and outsiders posts uncertainty on both parties. The Chinese family structure is patriarchal hence, it is the male that carries the last name of the family which also carries the legacy of the family itself.

Male Chinese marriage to a Filipina or any outsider is more admissible than vice versa. In the case of the Chinese female marrying a Filipino or any outsider, it may cause several unwanted issues especially on the side of the Chinese family.

In some instances, a member of a traditional Chinese-Filipino family may be denied of his or her inheritance and likely to be disowned by his or her family by marrying an outsider without their consent. On the other hand, modern Chinese-Filipino families allow their children to marry a Filipino or any outsider. However, many of them would still prefer that the Filipino or any outsider would have some or little Chinese blood. Like much of Southeast Asia, ethnic Chinese dominate Filipino commerce at every level of society.

Ethnic Chinese have been major players in the Filipino business sector for centuries. Long before Spanish conquest of the country, Chinese merchants carried on trading activities with native communities along the coast of modern Mainland China.

By the time the Spanish arrived, Chinese controlled all the trading and commercial activities, serving as retailers, artisans, and providers of food for various Spanish settlements. They predominated the retail trade and owned 75 percent of the 2, rice mills scattered along the Filipino islands. They were responsible for introducing sugar refining devices, new construction techniques, moveable type printing, and bronze making. Chinese also provided fishing, gardening, artisan, and other trading services.

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For instance, they may have age limit or location limit for their members. Aquino encouraged free press and cultural harmony, a process which led to the burgeoning of the Chinese-language media.

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They began to migrate in small numbers to the Philippines during the Spanish Period, but were eventually absorbed by intermarriage into the mainstream Hokkienese. As most Chinese Filipinos are reluctant to participate in politics and government, they have instead turned to civic organizations as their primary means of contributing to the general welfare of the Chinese community.

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