Retrieved 2 June Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages". Retrieved 31 October The maps and floor plans gave us insight into the evolution of Amsterdam as well as the designs of the buildings. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety. Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 18 June
The position was thus that the Union government continues to use English in addition to Hindi for its official purposes. Beijing Dushanbe Astana Indian cultural history spans more than 4, years. Among the better-known folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Populated places in the Mafube Local Municipality Populated places founded by Afrikaners Populated places established in establishments in South Africa.
Precise, harmonious, poetic as always. Some of our tours. I am now fascinated by the subject matter of ottoman and byzantine mosques. They had never experienced such a good architecture tour before! In the past, during our previous office trips to many other cities in North America we have tried to find similar tours and we never really found anything like it.
This was not the case. Arne did a wonderful job of combining architecturally interesting sites with historical relevant locales, and with city features not readily accessible to the average tourist. Thank you so much! The information and presentation materials were excellent. The maps and floor plans gave us insight into the evolution of Amsterdam as well as the designs of the buildings. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
The Indian constitution, in , declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union before that English sole was the official language of India. Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, i. The prospect of the changeover, however, led to much alarm in the non Hindi-speaking areas of India, especially Dravidian-speaking states whose languages were not related to Hindi at all.
As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act, , which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after In late , an attempt was made to expressly provide for an end to the use of English, but it was met with protests from states such as Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, West Bengal, Karnataka, Odisha, kerela, Gujarat, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh.
Some of these protests also turned violent. As a result, the proposal was dropped, and the Act itself was amended in to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.
The position was thus that the Union government continues to use English in addition to Hindi for its official purposes. The exact extent to which, and the areas in which, the Union government uses Hindi and English, respectively, is determined by the provisions of the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, , the Official Languages Rules, , and statutory instruments made by the Department of Official Language under these laws.
The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu formerly Madras State and part of Madras Presidency during both pre- and post-Independence periods. The agitations involved several mass protests, riots, student and political movements in Tamil Nadu concerning the official status of Hindi in the state.
The first anti-Hindi imposition agitation was launched in , in opposition to the introduction of compulsory teaching of Hindi in the schools of Madras Presidency by the first Indian National Congress government led by C. This move was immediately opposed by E. The agitation, which lasted three years, was multifaceted and involved fasts, conferences, marches, picketing and protests.
The government responded with a crackdown resulting in the death of two protesters and the arrest of 1, persons including women and children. India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate , and part of the Indo-Australian Plate. The original Indian plate survives as peninsular India , the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.
Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra , both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons.
Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world.
An acute balance of payments crisis in forced the nation to liberalise its economy ;  since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system   by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows. Averaging an economic growth rate of 7. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others.
According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report released by the Economist Intelligence Unit EIU which was created by comparing more than individual prices across products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore 3rd , Mumbai 5th , Chennai 5th and New Delhi 8th.
India's telecommunication industry , the world's fastest-growing, added million subscribers during the period —11,  and after the third quarter of , India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China. The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. According to a Walk Free Foundation report in , there were an estimated Since , economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: According to Corruption Perceptions Index , India ranked 76th out of countries in , from 85th in With 1,,, residents reported in the provisional census report ,  India is the world's second-most populous country.
Its population grew by Life expectancy in India is at 68 years, with life expectancy for women being The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas. India is home to two major language families: Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families.
India has no national language. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages". The Constitution of India recognises scheduled tribal groups which together constitute about 7. Indian cultural history spans more than 4, years. Much of Indian architecture , including the Taj Mahal , other works of Mughal architecture , and South Indian architecture , blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.
Vastu shastra , literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan ,  explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings;  it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.
This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore ,  who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature. Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms.
Among the better-known folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama.
The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema. Television broadcasting began in India in as a state-run medium of communication and had slow expansion for more than two decades. Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines, often depending on a particular state such as Maharashtrian cuisine.
Lentils may be used whole, dehusked—for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad —or split. Split lentils, or dal , are used extensively. Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent.
At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance. Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. Many Indian festivals are religious in origin.
Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states. Cotton was domesticated in India by BCE.
Traditional Indian dress varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men. Stitched clothes, such as the shalwar kameez for women and kurta — pyjama combinations or European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular. In India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi , kho kho , pehlwani and gilli-danda.
Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts , such as kalarippayattu , musti yuddha , silambam , and marma adi , originated in India. The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country.
Field hockey in India is administered by Hockey India. The Indian national hockey team won the Hockey World Cup and have, as of [update] , taken eight gold, one silver, and two bronze Olympic medals, making it the sport's most successful team in the Olympics. India has also played a major role in popularising cricket. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular sport in India. India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games.
An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where Team India won three out of four tournaments to date. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are the highest forms of government recognition for athletic achievement; the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India disambiguation. Area controlled by India shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Hindi English [b] . State level and Eighth Schedule . History of India and History of the Republic of India. Economic History of India and Economic development in India.
Textile industry in India. Languages of India and Religion in India. Music of India and Dance in India. Cinema of India and Television in India. India portal Asia portal. English is an additional official language for government work alongside Hindi.
However, this is disputed , and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Archived from the original PDF on 17 March Retrieved 1 September Mesopotamia and Egypt were longer-lived, but coexisted with Indus civilisation during its florescence between and B.
Of the three, the Indus was the most expansive, extending from today's northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and India. Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 1 March Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 23 August National Informatics Centre in Hindi.
Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 26 December The named reference Times News Network was invoked but never defined see the help page.
The named reference NoneNtl was invoked but never defined see the help page. The named reference Press Trust of India was invoked but never defined see the help page. Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 25 August Archived PDF from the original on 9 October Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 17 June Archived PDF from the original on 30 April Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 1 October United Nations Development Program.
Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 14 January Archived PDF from the original on 22 March Retrieved 21 March One Country, Two Names". South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal. Archived from the original on 28 September Naming change in changing names".
Journal of South Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 17 December
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Its first location seemed far from ideal It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. Retrieved from " https:
All were capped by the advent of independence in , but tempered by the partition of India into two states: The country was unified in the 17th century by the Mughal Empire. From styling and dyeing to proper hair care:
One Country, Two Names". Archived from the original on 21 September National Informatics Centre in Hindi. None   . Textile industry in India.