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There is even a nursery rhyme about war, The Grand Old Duke of York , ridiculing a general for his inability to command any further than marching his men up and down a hill. The development of breech loading had the greatest effect on naval warfare , for the first time since the Middle Ages, altering the way weapons are mounted on warships , and therefore naval tactics , now divorced from the reliance on sails with the invention of the internal combustion. Your username is suspended for violating our terms, please enter a new username. A major development in infantry tactics came with the increased use of trench warfare in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The advent of electrical signaling
Stacey is an Army wife of a soldier who joined in After World War II, with the onset of the Cold War , the constant technological development of new weapons was institutionalised, as participants engaged in a constant ' arms race ' in capability development. Join Today For Free! Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. Lived in Phoenix, even gave me a home address. Personnel may be posted to bases in their home country or overseas, according to operational need, and may be deployed from those bases on exercises or operations anywhere in the world. The aggregate of information gathered by these devices over a wide enemy front can be assembled electronically and displayed at headquarters where the combat commander can quickly estimate the situation and make tactical decisions.
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Please confirm your email address from the list below: The use of forces at the level of organisation between strategic and tactical is called operational mobility. Because most of the concepts and methods used by the military, and many of its systems are not found in commercial branches, much of the material is researched, designed, developed, and offered for inclusion in arsenals by military science organisations within the overall structure of the military.
Military scientists are therefore found to interact with all Arms and Services of the armed forces, and at all levels of the military hierarchy of command. Although concerned with research into military psychology , and particularly combat stress , and how it affect troop morale , often the bulk of military science activities is directed at military intelligence technology, military communications , and improving military capability through research.
The design, development, and prototyping of weapons , military support equipment, and military technology in general, is also an area in which lots of effort is invested — it includes everything from global communication networks and aircraft carriers to paint and food.
Possessing military capability is not sufficient if this capability cannot be deployed for, and employed in combat operations. To achieve this, military logistics are used for the logistics management and logistics planning of the forces military supply chain management , the consumables, and capital equipment of the troops.
Although mostly concerned with the military transport , as a means of delivery using different modes of transport; from military trucks , to container ships operating from permanent military base, it also involves creating field supply dumps at the rear of the combat zone, and even forward supply points in specific unit's Tactical Area of Responsibility. These supply points are also used to provide military engineering services, such as the recovery of defective and derelict vehicles and weapons, maintenance of weapons in the field, the repair and field modification of weapons and equipment; and in peacetime, the life-extension programmes undertaken to allow continued use of equipment.
One of the most important role of logistics is the supply of munitions as a primary type of consumable, their storage, and disposal. While capability development is about enabling the military to perform its functions and roles in executing the defence policy, how personnel and their equipment are used in engaging the enemy , winning battles , successfully concluding campaigns , and eventually the war — is the responsibility of military operations.
Military operations oversees the policy interpretation into military plans , allocation of capability to specific strategic , operational and tactical goals and objectives, change in posture of the armed forces, the interaction of Combat Arms , Combat Support Arms, and Combat Support Services during combat operations, defining of military missions and tasks during the conduct of combat, management of military prisoners and military civil affairs, and the military occupation of enemy territory, seizure of captured equipment, and maintenance of civil order in the territory under its responsibility.
Throughout the combat operations process , and during the lulls in combat, combat military intelligence provides reporting on the status of plan completion, and its correlation with desired, expected and achieved satisfaction of policy fulfilment.
The last requirement of the military is for military performance assessment, and learning from it. These two functions are performed by military historians and military theorists who seek to identify failures and success of the armed force, and integrate corrections into the military reform, with the aim of producing an improved force capable of performing adequately, should there be a national defence policy review.
The primary reason for the existence of the military is to engage in combat , should it be required to do so by the national defence policy, and to win. This represents an organisational goal of any military, and the primary focus for military thought through military history.
How victory is achieved, and what shape it assumes, is studied by most, if not all, military groups on three levels. Military strategy is the management of forces in wars and military campaigns by a commander-in-chief , employing large military forces, either national and allied as a whole, or the component elements of armies , navies and air forces ; such as army groups , naval fleets , and large numbers of aircraft.
Military strategy is a long-term projection of belligerents' policy, with a broad view of outcome implications, including outside the concerns of military command. Military strategy is more concerned with the supply of war and planning, than management of field forces and combat between them. The scope of strategic military planning can span weeks, but is more often months or even years.
Operational mobility is, within warfare and military doctrine , the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy.
A common synonym is operational art. The operational level is at a scale bigger than one where line of sight and the time of day are important, and smaller than the strategic level, where production and politics are considerations. Formations are of the operational level if they are able to conduct operations on their own, and are of sufficient size to be directly handled or have a significant impact at the strategic level.
This concept was pioneered by the German army prior to and during the Second World War. At this level, planning and duration of activities takes from one week to a month, and are executed by Field Armies and Army Corps and their naval and air equivalents. Military tactics concerns itself with the methods for engaging and defeating the enemy in direct combat.
Military tactics are usually used by units over hours or days, and are focused on the specific, close proximity tasks and objectives of squadrons , companies , battalions , regiments , brigades , and divisions , and their naval and air force equivalents. It has even been used to formulate business tactics, and can even be applied in social and political areas.
The Classical Greeks and the Romans wrote prolifically on military campaigning. Two major works on tactics come from the late Roman period: Taktike Theoria examined Greek military tactics, and was most influential in the Byzantine world and during the Golden Age of Islam. De Re Militari formed the basis of European military tactics until the late 17th century.
Perhaps its most enduring maxim is Igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum let he who desires peace prepare for war.
Due to the changing nature of combat with the introduction of artillery in the European Middle Ages , and infantry firearms in the Renaissance , attempts were made to define and identify those strategies, grand tactics , and tactics that would produce a victory more often than that achieved by the Romans in praying to the gods before the battle. Later this became known as military science , and later still, would adopt the scientific method approach to the conduct of military operations under the influence of the Industrial Revolution thinking.
In his seminal book On War , the Prussian Major-General and leading expert on modern military strategy , Carl von Clausewitz defined military strategy as 'the employment of battles to gain the end of war'.
Hence, Clausewitz placed political aims above military goals , ensuring civilian control of the military. Military strategy was one of a triumvirate of ' arts ' or 'sciences' that governed the conduct of warfare, the others being: The meaning of military tactics has changed over time; from the deployment and manoeuvring of entire land armies on the fields of ancient battles, and galley fleets; to modern use of small unit ambushes , encirclements , bombardment attacks, frontal assaults , air assaults , hit-and-run tactics used mainly by guerrilla forces, and, in some cases, suicide attacks on land and at sea.
Evolution of aerial warfare introduced its own air combat tactics. Often, military deception , in the form of military camouflage or misdirection using decoys , is used to confuse the enemy as a tactic. A major development in infantry tactics came with the increased use of trench warfare in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Trench warfare often turned to a stalemate, only broken by a large loss of life, because, in order to attack an enemy entrenchment, soldiers had to run through an exposed ' no man's land ' under heavy fire from their opposing entrenched enemy.
As with any occupation, since the ancient times, the military has been distinguished from other members of the society by their tools, the military weapons, and military equipment used in combat.
When Stone Age humans first took a sliver of flint to tip the spear , it was the first example of applying technology to improve the weapon. Since then, the advances made by human societies, and that of weapons, has been irretrievably linked. Stone weapons gave way to Bronze Age weapons, and later, the Iron Age weapons. With each technological change, was realised some tangible increase in military capability, such as through greater effectiveness of a sharper edge in defeating leather armour , or improved density of materials used in manufacture of weapons.
On land , the first really significant technological advance in warfare was the development of the ranged weapons , and notably, the sling. The next significant advance came with the domestication of the horses and mastering of equestrianism. Arguably, the greatest invention that affected not just the military, but all society, after adoption of fire, was the wheel , and its use in the construction of the chariot. There were no advances in military technology, until, from the mechanical arm action of a slinger, the Greeks , Egyptians , Romans , Persians , Chinese , etc.
The bow was manufactured in increasingly larger and more powerful versions, to increase both the weapon range, and armour penetration performance. These developed into the powerful composite and recurve bows, and crossbows of Ancient China. These proved particularly useful during the rise of cavalry, as horsemen encased in ever-more sophisticated armour came to dominate the battlefield.
Somewhat earlier, in medieval China, gunpowder had been invented, and was increasingly used by the military in combat. The use of gunpowder in the early vase-like mortars in Europe, and advanced versions of the long bow and cross bow , which all had armour-piercing arrowheads , that put an end to the dominance of the armoured knight. After the long bow, which required great skill and strength to use, the next most significant technological advance was the musket , which could be used effectively, with little training.
In time, the successors to muskets and cannon , in the form of rifles and artillery , would become core battlefield technology. As the speed of technological advances accelerated in civilian applications, so too warfare became more industralised.
The newly invented machine gun and repeating rifle redefined firepower on the battlefield, and, in part, explains the high casualty rates of the American Civil War. The next breakthrough was the conversion of artillery parks from the muzzle loading guns , to the quicker loading breech loading guns with recoiling barrel that allowed quicker aimed fire and use of a shield. The widespread introduction of low smoke smokeless propellant powders since the s also allowed for a great improvement of artillery ranges.
The development of breech loading had the greatest effect on naval warfare , for the first time since the Middle Ages, altering the way weapons are mounted on warships , and therefore naval tactics , now divorced from the reliance on sails with the invention of the internal combustion.
A further advance in military naval technology was the design of the submarine , and its weapon, the torpedo. Main battle tanks , and other heavy equipment such as armoured fighting vehicles , military aircraft , and ships , are characteristic to organised military forces. During World War I , the need to break the deadlock of trench warfare saw the rapid development of many new technologies, particularly tanks.
Military aviation was extensively used, and bombers became decisive in many battles of World War II , which marked the most frantic period of weapons development in history. Many new designs, and concepts were used in combat, and all existing technologies of warfare were improved between and During the war, significant advances were made in military communications through increased use of radio, military intelligence through use of the radar , and in military medicine through use of penicillin , while in the air, the guided missile , jet aircraft , and helicopters were seen for the first time.
Perhaps the most infamous of all military technologies was the creation of the atomic bomb , although the exact effects of its radiation were unknown until the early s. Far greater use of military vehicles had finally eliminated the cavalry from the military force structure.
After World War II, with the onset of the Cold War , the constant technological development of new weapons was institutionalised, as participants engaged in a constant ' arms race ' in capability development. This constant state of weapons development continues into the present, and remains a constant drain on national resources, which some [ who?
The most significant technological developments that influenced combat have been the guided missiles, which can be used by all branches of the armed services. More recently, information technology , and its use in surveillance , including space-based reconnaissance systems, have played an increasing role in military operations.
The impact of information warfare that focuses on attacking command communication systems, and military databases, has been coupled with the new development in military technology, has been the use of robotic systems in intelligence combat, both in hardware and software applications.
Recently, there has also been a particular focus towards the use of renewable fuels for running military vehicles on. Unlike fossil fuels, renewable fuels can be produced in any country, creating a strategic advantage.
For much of military history , the armed forces were considered to be for use by the heads of their societies, until recently, the crowned heads of states.
In a democracy or other political system run in the public interest, it is a public force. The relationship between the military and the society it serves is a complicated and ever-evolving one. Much depends on the nature of the society itself, and whether it sees the military as important, as for example in time of threat or war, or a burdensome expense typified by defence cuts in time of peace.
One difficult matter in the relation between military and society is control and transparency. In some countries, limited information on military operations and budgeting is accessible for the public.
However transparency in the military sector is crucial to fight corruption. These relationships are seen from the perspective of political-military relations , the military-industrial complex mentioned above, and the socio-military relationship.
The last can be divided between those segments of society that offer support for the military , those who voice opposition to the military , the voluntary and involuntary civilians in the military forces, the populations of civilians in a combat zone, and of course the military's self-perception. Militaries often function as societies within societies, by having their own military communities, economies , education , medicine , and other aspects of a functioning civilian society.
Although a 'military' is not limited to nations in of itself as many private military companies or PMC's can be used or 'hired' by organisations and figures as security, escort, or other means of protection; where police, agencies, or militaries are absent or not trusted. Militarist ideology is the society 's social attitude of being best served, or being a beneficiary of a government , or guided by concepts embodied in the military culture, doctrine, system , or leaders.
Either because of the cultural memory , national history, or the potentiality of a military threat , the militarist argument asserts that a civilian population is dependent upon, and thereby subservient to the needs and goals of its military for continued independence. Militarism is sometimes contrasted with the concepts of comprehensive national power , soft power and hard power. Most nations have separate military laws which regulate conduct in war and during peacetime.
An early exponent was Hugo Grotius , whose On the Law of War and Peace had a major impact of the humanitarian approach to warfare development. His theme was echoed by Gustavus Adolphus. Ethics of warfare have developed since , to create constraints on the military treatment of prisoners and civilians, primarily by the Geneva Conventions ; but rarely apply to use of the military forces as internal security troops during times of political conflict that results in popular protests and incitement to popular uprising.
International protocols restrict the use, or have even created international bans on weapons, notably weapons of mass destruction WMD. International conventions define what constitutes a war crime , and provides for war crimes prosecution. Individual countries also have elaborate codes of military justice , an example being the United States' Uniform Code of Military Justice that can lead to court martial for military personnel found guilty of war crimes.
Military actions are sometimes argued to be justified by furthering a humanitarian cause, such as disaster relief operations, or in defence of refugees. The term military humanism is used to refer to such actions. A military brat is a colloquial term for a child with at least one parent who served as an active duty member vice reserve in the armed forces. Children of armed forces members may move around to different military bases or international postings, which gives them a childhood differing from the norm.
Unlike common usage of the term brat , when it is used in this context, it is not necessarily a derogatory term.
Soldiers and armies have been prominent in popular culture since the beginnings of recorded history. In addition to the countless images of military leaders in heroic poses from antiquity , they have been an enduring source of inspiration in war literature. Not all of this has been entirely complementary, and the military have been lampooned or ridiculed as often as they have been idolised.
The classical Greek writer Aristophanes , devoted an entire comedy , Lysistrata , to a strike organised by military wives, where they withhold sex from their husbands to prevent them from going to war.
In Medieval Europe , tales of knighthood and chivalry , the officer class of the period captured the popular imagination. Even in the 21st century, books and films about the Arthurian legend and the Holy Grail continue to appear. A century or so later, in the hands of writers such as Jean Froissart , Miguel Cervantes and William Shakespeare , the fictional knight Tirant lo Blanch , and the real-life condottieri John Hawkwood would be juxtaposed against the fantastical Don Quixote , and the carousing Sir John Falstaff.
In just one play, Henry V , Shakespeare provides a whole range of military characters, from cool-headed and clear-sighted generals , to captains , and common soldiery.
Emperor Augustus Caesar in a martial pose 1st century. Sir John Hawkwood fresco in the Duomo , Florence. The rapid growth of movable type in the late 16th century and early 17th century saw an upsurge in private publication. Political pamphlets became popular, often lampooning military leaders for political purposes.
A pamphlet directed against Prince Rupert of the Rhine is a typical example. During the 19th century, irreverence towards authority was at its height, and for every elegant military gentleman painted by the master- portraitists of the European courts, for example, Gainsborough , Goya , and Reynolds , there are the sometimes affectionate and sometimes savage caricatures of Rowland and Hogarth.
This extended to media other print also. An enduring example is the Major-General's Song from the Gilbert and Sullivan light opera , The Pirates of Penzance , where a senior army officer is satirised for his enormous fund of irrelevant knowledge.
Rowlandson often satirised the military.
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Perhaps the most infamous of all military technologies was the creation of the atomic bomb , although the exact effects of its radiation were unknown until the early s.
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