Best Questions To Ask A Potential Love Interest
The rate of progress varied greatly from about a foot a day when blasting through rock in the summit tunnel to the world's record of ten miles in one day. They have your name, number and all info you would need……….. One report in China Daily suggests that dating for Chinese university women is "difficult" and "takes work" and steals time away from academic advancement, and places women in a precarious position of having to balance personal success against traditional Chinese relationships. HonestJohn, I just found your post and must say that you are right. Surprisingly, he seems not to have researched any story of whatever ceremonies may have accompanied the opening.
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It is a myth that the Chinese railroad workers were murdered or treated as slaves. The thirty-two foot rail was laid on its side across the two ties. As with many free or low-cost sites, ads can be frequent and feel spammy. I still have not received any response on this. One account suggests that the dating scene in Beijing is "sad" with particular difficulties for expatriate Chinese women hoping to find romance.
I used this on my current girlfriend before we started dating and well…we are dating so it worked. Very practical, it works like a charm…. Good day I just wanted to ask you all stop through at http: The style of writing is quite familiar. Have you written guest posts for other blogs? I mean really truthful for me. I agree that failed expectations cause disappointment. Readers might enjoy this article: Hi, your site completely makes me think of a great website I saw on how to get pregnant fast.
I think about another good question on first date What do you prefer to have together? If he still did not run… so I recommend you check with him this amazing site which teaches how to choose the sex of the newborn. This is interesting advice.. It also shows that the person actually cares about relationships and how to make them work. So J prom is coming up and I really want to ask this girl.
Shes been a friend for the last 4 years, but shes been going out with one of my friends for the last But since they have done that like 3 times already, idk what will happen. But anyway, Idk what I should do. I wanted to do it right there and then but I controlled my self lol.
What should I do?? It may seem like you are getting too serious, too quickly. I think at some level you do start getting indications of answers to these questions naturally, in general conversation. When you are asking someone what their interests are, how was their week etc and of course how available is this person to meet with you — you start getting an idea if he has time and space in his life for a relationship… Without actually having to ask the question directly.
Hey Datingadvicefromagirl, In addition to your post I was wondering, Many people have questions related to their love life. Some go through tough time with their partner whereas some find it very difficult to find a life partner. Problems related to love life can make it very difficult for you to concentrate on your personal and professional life. That is the reason why many people to make use of free tarot reading and free psychic online to know how to deal with their love life.
Keep up the good work. Back when I did my mountain ops training, I once accidentally knocked my helmet off a cliff. I dove for it and caught it before it went over a sheer drop. To my credit I caught it. To my detriment I almost fell off a goddamn cliff to save a helmet. So idk if my friend just likes me as just that or as a could be more! He tOok me to prom and we had a great time but now when we hang out it seems like there could be more to it!
But we r never alOne and when we get talking and have a moment it gets interupted! Wut do I do!?!? He needs a little help if he likes you. But not too much help: See if he takes it from there. Let him muster up the courage to tell you first. Give him a chance to man up… but help him out a little by giving SUBTLE hints that something could possibly be there for you. Does that make sense?
Do you need more examples? Yes it makes sence and thanx for helping! Plus he is a really shy kid! He is sorta breaking out of his shell a little now, but even his mom told me he is more himself with me than with most people. Sadly, the principals of the Central Pacific RR knew no more of their future than we know of ours. Lassen's trail used first by emigrants to California in connected the Applegate road which ran from the California trail near modern Lovelock, Nv to southwest Oregon at Goose Lake in northeastern California and wandered southward until it hit the headwaters of the Feather River and then turned west toward the Sacramento Valley.
So, for about five or ten miles, these two routes into California followed the same trace, with emigrants using the Lassen trail going south and those on the Nobles trail going the opposite direction. Who went which way depended upon point of origin and point of destination- -and what ignorance of topography any particular traveler subscribed to. The point being that California's mix of roads and confusion is nothing new.
And, to bring this back to railroads: Their interest in the Comstock cost the company the animosity of those already engaged in the Comstock trade which translated into lost income and lost local financing and the high cost of building and operating a railroad across the Sierra at feet. Had they stuck with Judah's pre plan, they would have crossed the mountains over a thousand feet lower over less rugged terrain, they would have likely received more local funding, have built track faster and received federal bonds for track built faster , have carried more of the Idaho commerce which was essentially all they carried into , and probably would have reached the eastern side of the Sierra a couple years earlier which would have netted them the Comstock trade sooner.
And, they may have met the Union Pacific near Cheyenne rather than Promontory which, if nothing else would have gotten them coal but may actually have kept the UP out of Oregon and Southern California. Did the CPRR actually own the land "granted" or did they have to patent it to gain ownership?
There were different Congressional Grants made to allow construction of the transcontinental railroad. The railroad cannot sell any of the main line right of way. If the railroad now UPRR was ever to abandon any right of way, it would revert back to the government. The "Section Lands" are a different matter. In order to encourage the building of the transcontinental railroad, Congress granted in fee CP alternating Sections of land 20 alternate Sections per mile out from the main line corridor.
The government kept the other alternating Sections of land, thereby benefiting, as the construction of the railroad increased the value of the railroad's Section Lands and the Government's. Thus, the main line operating right of way varies in width is not patented in the railroad and reverts to the Government on cessation of use.
The Section Lands are patented in the railroad fee title. For each 40 miles of railroad built, the Section Lands were patented to the railroad.
The patents to the land were not recorded in the County recorders office, but in the U. This created some subsequent confusion for title companies in their issuance of title to purchasers who had no idea that it was grant land. The Act granted alternating Sections 10 miles out from the main line right of way, and the Act amended that to 20 miles on each side of the right of way. I understand that location maps had to be filed before the land was granted, and that the granted properties could not contain minerals except for iron or coal.
I found in my personal experience that many of the deeds conveying land to SPRR for instance, were deeds from private individuals. Many of those properties were not only for the right of way itself, but for other property holdings adjoining the right of way in excess of what was need for railroad operations. In other words, if the railroad needed a 60 foot wide right of way for instance, they would acquire the lands in the path the railroad was to traverse and not just acquire a 60 foot wide strip of property, but all of a land parcel owned by someone if that is what was needed to get the railroad built.
These land grants covered a portion of the right of way that was owned by SPRR. The non-railroad land holding companies were not subject to ICC scrutiny and could be merged into the parent company, whereas the SP as a railroad operating company needed the ICC's blessing to be merged with the ATSF.
SP was held in a voting trust during the merger proceedings, its plant slowly decaying as little or no money was put into the SP during this time. Thus, when Santa Fe Southern Pacific Corp sold the SP to Phil Anschutz in , they kept the non-railroad land assets mentioned above, however, the core railroad lands the rights of way, station grounds, switching yards went with the SP to Anschutz.
Anyway, a brief synopsis of the huge sucking sound that started the decimation of the SP. On the val map itself or on a separate map, there would be a "Schedule of Property" that would show each parcel and provide the specifics of who sold the property to the railroad and the specific date and recording information.
For informational purposes only. This website does not offer legal advice, and the above information may not apply to your real estate situation.
It is imperative that you seek the services of a qualified real estate attorney if the need arises. Links courtesy Bruce C. It is of an extreme atrocity perpetrated by the railroad. This photo shows several men with their rifles posing in front of the dead pile as someone who'd just shot and killed a trophy buck.
I know that I saw this photo. It has been years ago, though. The rumor that your library patron heard is totally incorrect. The Chinese who built the transcontinental railroad were not murdered. Instead they mostly continued building railroads, for example, the line from northern to southern California via the San Joaquin Valley. Some returned to China. Regrettably, there certainly was virulent anti-Chinese sentiment in 19th century California , and there were some riots in which Chinese were killed , but not related to the railroad or its workers.
Nineteen Chinese died in an riot in Los Angeles' Chinatown at Calle de los Negros, near the Plaza which is four hundred miles south of the first transcontinental railroad. There is also a commonly repeated myth that large numbers of Chinese died building the Central Pacific Railroad.
Claims that thousands were killed appear to be wildly inaccurate — we have not been able to find documentation of more than about 50 casualties resulting from the CPRR construction. It is unfortunate that such rumors abound, but perhaps this results in part from the paucity of information, as no first hand accounts of the Chinese railroad workers' experiences are known to exist.
The reason that you have not been able to find such an image on the CPRR Museum website is that this rumored event never happened on the Central Pacific Railroad! To the contrary, a reporter for the San Francisco Newsletter, May 15th, , described the final moments of the celebration at Promontory: Strobridge, when the work was all over, invited the Chinese who had been brought over from Victory for that purpose, to dine at his boarding car.
When they entered, all the guests and officers present cheered them as the chosen representatives of the race which have greatly helped to build the road Federal troops restored order and remained in Rock Springs until One website reports quoting Colonel George M. Totten that in there was a mass suicide of Chinese Coolie laborers on the Panama Railroad following a tropical fever outbreak and an ill advised decision to abruptly cut off the workers' opium supply, but primary sources would need to be verified.
Where there railroad price wars? To that end, William Vanderbilt, the president of the New York Central, decided to invade the Pennsylvania Railroad's territory by building an alternate route to Pittsburgh. If someone was travelling from New York City to San Francisco in , what station would they leave from? What is known about Emigrant Trains?
All others were in located in Jersey City, Hobeken, and Weehawken. Passengers took ferries across the Hudson River to to New Jersey to reach them. Barclay street runs out of Broadway westerly. Take Broadway and 7th Avenue cars. Also for Hoboken, foot of Christopher street, from 5 A.
From 8 to 12 P. Robert Louis Stevenson 's description of his transcontinental railroad trip, Across the Plains , documents his departure from New York via ferry to Jersey City as follows:.
An emigrant ship had arrived at New York on the Saturday night, another on the Sunday morning, our own on Sunday afternoon, a fourth early on Monday; and as there is no emigrant train on Sunday a great part of the passengers from these four ships was concentrated on the train by which I was to travel.
There was a babel of bewildered men, women, and children. The wretched little booking-office, and the baggage-room, which was not much larger, were crowded thick with emigrants, and were heavy and rank with the atmosphere of dripping clothes. Open carts full of bedding stood by the half-hour in the rain.
The officials loaded each other with recriminations. A bearded, mildewed little man, whom I take to have been an emigrant agent, was all over the place, his mouth full of brimstone, blustering and interfering. It was plain that the whole system, if system there was, had utterly broken down under the strain of so many passengers. My own ticket was given me at once, and an oldish man, who preserved his head in the midst of this turmoil, got my baggage registered, and counselled me to stay quietly where I was till he should give me the word to move.
I had taken along with me a small valise, a knapsack, which I carried on my shoulders, and in the bag of my railway rug the whole of Bancroft's History of the United States , in six fat volumes.
It was as much as I could carry with convenience even for short distances, but it insured me plenty of clothing, and the valise was at that moment, and often after, useful for a stool. I am sure I sat for an hour in the baggage- room, and wretched enough it was; yet, when at last the word was passed to me and I picked up my bundles and got under way, it was only to exchange discomfort for downright misery and danger.
I followed the porters into a long shed reaching downhill from West Street to the river. It was dark, the wind blew clean through it from end to end; and here I found a great block of passengers and baggage, hundreds of one and tons of the other. I feel I shall have a difficulty to make myself believed; and certainly the scene must have been exceptional, for it was too dangerous for daily repetition.
It was a tight jam; there was no fair way through the mingled mass of brute and living obstruction. Into the upper skirts of the crowd porters, infuriated by hurry and overwork, clove their way with shouts. I may say that we stood like sheep, and that the porters charged among us like so many maddened sheep- dogs; and I believe these men were no longer answerable for their acts.
It mattered not what they were carrying, they drove straight into the press, and when they could get no farther, blindly discharged their barrowful. With my own hand, for instance, I saved the life of a child as it sat upon its mother's knee, she sitting on a box; and since I heard of no accident, I must suppose that there were many similar interpositions in the course of the evening.
It will give some idea of the state of mind to which we were reduced if I tell you that neither the porter nor the mother of the child paid the least attention to my act. It was not till some time after that I understood what I had done myself, for to ward off heavy boxes seemed at the moment a natural incident of human life.
Cold, wet, clamour, dead opposition to progress, such as one encounters in an evil dream, had utterly daunted the spirits. We had accepted this purgatory as a child accepts the conditions of the world. For my part, I shivered a little, and my back ached wearily; but I believe I had neither a hope nor a fear, and all the activities of my nature had become tributary to one massive sensation of discomfort.
At length, and after how long an interval I hesitate to guess, the crowd began to move, heavily straining through itself. About the same time some lamps were lighted, and threw a sudden flare over the shed. We were being filtered out into the river boat for Jersey City. You may imagine how slowly this filtering proceeded, through the dense, choking crush, every one overladen with packages or children, and yet under the necessity of fishing out his ticket by the way; but it ended at length for me, and I found myself on deck under a flimsy awning and with a trifle of elbow-room to stretch and breathe in.
This was on the starboard; for the bulk of the emigrants stuck hopelessly on the port side, by which we had entered. In vain the seamen shouted to them to move on, and threatened them with shipwreck. These poor people were under a spell of stupor, and did not stir a foot. It rained as heavily as ever, but the wind now came in sudden claps and capfuls, not without danger to a boat so badly ballasted as ours; and we crept over the river in the darkness, trailing one paddle in the water like a wounded duck, and passed ever and again by huge, illuminated steamers running many knots, and heralding their approach by strains of music.
The contrast between these pleasure embarkations and our own grim vessel, with her list to port and her freight of wet and silent emigrants, was of that glaring description which we count too obvious for the purposes of art.
The landing at Jersey City was done in a stampede. I had a fixed sense of calamity, and to judge by conduct, the same persuasion was common to us all. A panic selfishness, like that produced by fear, presided over the disorder of our landing. People pushed, and elbowed, and ran, their families following how they could. Children fell, and were picked up to be rewarded by a blow.
One child, who had lost her parents, screamed steadily and with increasing shrillness, as though verging towards a fit; an official kept her by him, but no one else seemed so much as to remark her distress; and I am ashamed to say that I ran among the rest. I was so weary that I had twice to make a halt and set down my bundles in the hundred yards or so between the pier and the railway station, so that I was quite wet by the time that I got under cover.
There was no waiting-room, no refreshment room; the cars were locked; and for at least another hour, or so it seemed, we had to camp upon the draughty, gaslit platform. I sat on my valise, too crushed to observe my neighbours; but as they were all cold, and wet, and weary, and driven stupidly crazy by the mismanagement to which we had been subjected, I believe they can have been no happier than myself.
I bought half-a-dozen oranges from a boy, for oranges and nuts were the only refection to be had. As only two of them had even a pretence of juice, I threw the other four under the cars, and beheld, as in a dream, grown people and children groping on the track after my leavings. At last we were admitted into the cars, utterly dejected, and far from dry. For my own part, I got out a clothes-brush, and brushed my trousers as hard as I could till I had dried them and warmed my blood into the bargain; but no one else, except my next neighbour to whom I lent the brush, appeared to take the least precaution.
As they were, they composed themselves to sleep. I had seen the lights of Philadelphia, and been twice ordered to change carriages and twice countermanded, before I allowed myself to follow their example. Many travellers continued their trip across the continent via Chicago. As a result, Chicago became the nation's most important 'jumping off' place for millions of people migrating west over the next fifty years.
Memories of the Old West by Thaddeus J. Later, the boy was told that an emigrant train from the West would arrive at two o'clock and there when it stopped to solicit business for the house. This particular train had been put on to give early settlers in California a chance to go East for the first time by rail at reduced rates.
It was, therefore, unusually well patronized. There was a bitter rivalry between the railroad eating-house and the Major's establishment, and bad feeling had existed for a long time.
It seems the railroad company owned all the land for two hundred feet on each side of the track, and the Major had been warned to keep off. This he refused to do, and the company had sent out a detective and gunman from Omaha to prevent trespassing. He and the Major met one day, and the latter came away with a bullet in his arm.
This explained his keeping the arm in the sling. The Major, therefore, cautioned the boy to "keep his eyes peeled" and be on the lookout for the runner from the Railroad House. That night, when the time came for retiring, the boy asked Mrs. L where he would find a bed. She turned on him with disgust. Since the previous job had made blankets a necessity, he was well equipped, and soon produced them; whereupon the woman opened a door, and said, "Here's your room.
The next morning he got an early start in the store with brooms and dusters, and this routine continued for a week or more. With great disgust the Major met the price, but in a few days he had more cause for complaint, for he was startled to hear: Tommy Meehan comments further about Emigrant Trains: During the interim period all processing was out of the Barge Office at the Battery.
The agents were there to assemble passengers into trainload groups, get them loaded onto vessels In the early years, s to about or so, I believe the trains were scheduled, though in most cases only persons holding immigrant tickets could board them.
On the Erie the 'Immigrant Train' I've seen it spelled both ways was the last long-haul passenger train to operate through the Piermont terminal after the changeover to Exchange Place in After the huge increase in immigration from about until In addition the Erie immigrant trains of the later years operated from a special track at Pavonia Terminal in Jersey City, located north of the regular passenger concourse. Erie employees were regularly reminded via the company magazine that the immigrants provided good business to the road and were entitled to be treated with respect and dignity at all times.
Dan Cupper, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania comments that " In some cases, PRR ran solid emigrant trains as extras but for the most part, emigrants traveled in separate coaches coupled to No. Various timetables show connections for Cleveland and Columbus but not Indianapolis or St. You can find evidence of the use of this train for emigrant travel in the Altoona newspapers i. They were mostly Italians. As for what influenced emigrant's choice of route, the evidence insofar as PRR is concerned points specifically to three influences: The railroad employed a force of sales agents who attempted to direct passengers to the PRR.
The publication listed 29 steamship companies whose vessels these men would meet. The railroad's own internal investigation in the s into the origin of its keystone logo turned up the fact that one of its earliest uses was on a placard advertising the PRR to arriving emigrants.
Of course, few could read English, but the idea was to use the keystone shape as a brand identifier. Many emigrants gave verbal testimony to the fact that they were traveling to reach family or friends who had already emigrated to the United States and settled. Thus, the location of these prior emigres dictated the choice of route.
Western Pennsylvania, with its heavy concentration of eastern and southern Europeans working in the iron, steel, and coal industries, made PRR a preferred route for many of these travelers. The family members or friends may, in fact, have sent for them — i. Adrian Ettlinger summarizes that " And, obviously, eastern roads, both the PRR and the Erie, did a lot of emigrant business. It does seem apparent that, while the great majority of emigrant passengers may have under a 'group arrangement' organized by companies that specialized in the 'emigrant forwarding' business, it does certainly appear that any individual who wanted to save money and 'rough it' could buy an emigrant class ticket and travel in that manner.
Robert Louis Stevenson, from Kyle's info, obviously traveled on the Burlington Curious as to how the three routes competed, I checked out an Official Guide , and it's remarkable how close they were as to their fastest train schedules.
All three had 'expresses' which left Chicago at The Rock Island shows a 9: The Burlington shows an arrival at 'U. Perhaps a ploy by the Burlington to look faster. Transfer was on the east side of the river. Which leads to a further question. I'd mentioned previously how Maury Klein in his UP history describes the 'Omaha Bridge Transfer' which resulted from an inability of the railroads and the cities of Omaha and Council Bluffs to agree on where the transfer point would be, so that the advantages of the bridge were seriously compromised for a time, in that two transfers were needed, just as had been the situation with the ferry.
This situation seems to have prevailed until , when a Federal Court ruling, upheld by the Supreme Court, declared that the bridge was an integral part of the UP, and the UP's eastern terminus was in Council Bluff.
Klein describes how those two roads paid tolls to the UP for use of the bridge, but the Burlington objected, so terminated its trains at 'UP Transfer. Chris Baer explains that: The PRR had emigrant trains from at least the very early s and had an Emigrant Agent who traveled abroad to solicit business.
The early emigrant trains are listed in the timetables published in Philadelphia newspapers, indicating that they probably did some business carrying people who had already been in the country at least a while but wanted to go west. They appear to have gone no farther than Pittsburgh, where emigrants would have a choice of steamboats and other connections.
As has been mentioned already, it would appear that these trains ceased to be advertised in domestic newspapers, possibly by the time of the depression which reduced immigration, as well as in public timetables. They may have been listed as second class trains in employee timetables, but I have never seen any from this period.
Later, they may have run irregularly as extras. The PRR's emigrant business was always handled at Jersey City, since after the Immigration Station was moved from Castle Garden at the Battery to Ellis Island, people could run directly to the station by boat without going into the city.
There was an emigrant waiting room in one of the piers adjacent to the PRR station at least as late as the s. The PRR's book form Lines West employee timetable in the late s and early s advertises occasional trains for homesteaders, presumably from the near Midwest, who wish to relocate to the Plains, Oklahoma, etc. Trains for immigrants from Europe must have been advertised in special flyers and handbills that were distributed in ports.
Bernie Sennstrom wrote that: The roster of emigrant cars decreased over time until when remaining emigrant cars were scrapped. There were no special emigrant trains I'm aware of. Emigrant cars were attached to regular through passenger trains. Kyle Williams Wyatt remarks that "I believe it was in the s that Pullman introduced their Tourist Cars to tap into this middle class market. Pullman used both downgraded Pullman cars and purpose built cars.
These new cars were very plain with little decoration — but did have somewhat more comfortable amenities than the emigrant cars — for instance the seats were padded. Railroads Shipped by Sea by Wendell Huffman states: Although sailing across the bay and delta and up the Sacramento River presented far fewer hazards than sailing around Cape Horn, this endeavor was not without its occasional mishap. Due to accidents, at least one load of rail ended up in the bay, and another load was lost into the Sacramento River.
The information I have regarding the locomotive going into the Hudson River comes from a letter from C. Crocker of 21 March It was on a lighter. Most likely all came by "lighter" — either coastal schooners or canal boats. These locomotives were invoiced as followed: Presumably these were the dates they left the factories.
Perhaps the 66 should be removed from the list of possibilities — depending upon how long we imagine it took to carry a locomotive from Boston to New York. The 64, 80, 81, and 84 departed New York harbor on the "Prima Donna" on April 4; the 65 sailed on the "Fleetford" on April 7; and the 66 went on the "Favorita" on April It doesn't appear that any of these engines was long delayed between factory and ship.
Since the mishap occured on 20 March, the locomotive was possibly one being loaded on the "Prima Donna", and perhaps because of the accident it missed sailing and was the one the 65 which departed on the "Fleetford" a few days later. But I think that is reading too much into the scant data.
In any event, no locomotive invoiced during this period failed to depart New York for California. The locomotive is not still on the bottom of the Hudson River. Certainly salvage operators of that era had the capability to retrieve items from shallow waters, and they clearly did so with whichever locomotive took an unscheduled bath. Coast-to-coast sleeping cars in the USA. City of San Francisco: All the cars were 10 roomettes, 6 double bedrooms, except one of the cars on the 20th Century Limited-Super Chief and the car on the 20th Century Limited-Broadway Limited, which were 4 compartment, 4 double bedrooms, 2 drawing room.
Noteworthy is that the Super Chief carried four coast-to-coast sleeping cars, half of its sleeping car complement. Passengers could stay in the car, but would probably have to supply their own lunch. Consequently I would suspect that most passengers would take the time to visit Chicago. The major advantage to the through cars was that passengers could leave your baggage in the car, as advertised in the Guide. The main long run trains operated by the SP in from San Francisco via the Sierra route to Utah and points east were: Westbound train 10 was suspended in July, , and Eastbound 5 was suspended in January, , because of the War.
These trains did not return to service until June, The 20th Century Ltd, however, did not go to San Francisco. This service was also offered by the Century's eastern competitor: By the mids both the Century and the Broadway carried California Pullmans: San Francisco and Los Angeles destinations alternating.
How did the surveyors and engineers back then know what elevation to set the rail bed at especially when the rails followed parallel to a river? It seems like they knew how high to set it to minimize the tracks being covered by flood waters when a river would flood. Without historical data of river floods like we have today how did they know the elevation they chose was high enough to avoid say a year flood if they did not know what a year flood was?
Correspondence of the Casement Brothers of the Union Pacific is full of dismay as the Missouri, the Platte, the Green, the Weber, and feeder streams took them by surprise and washed away their work.
Even at the end there was a furious debate over how closely they could approach Great Salt Lake to avoid just the sort of rare catastrophe you mention.
The Central Pacific, too, had its own problems in the Sierra with unanticipated washouts just as it did with record-breaking snows, spring mudslides, etc. Drier Nevada and Utah posed a few problems as one could look at a dry, dead creekbed not realizing that one weekend out of every five years it would suddenly overflow and wreck a culvert or erase a stretch of grade. This can be validated by the loss of rail and roadbed in on the North side of Smart Ridge, when a snowslide took out three hundred feet of bed and rail.
To keep this from happening again, a stone wall was constructed along the rail bed yes, they just filled it in and reused it ; this stone wall is still in place — it measures about feet long, 15 feet high, and four feet thick. Or, if they were lucky, trial and success. I'm sure it was more art than science, but I would think that the more successful engineer took time to study the landscape. Signs of stream erosion were no doubt telling.
However, the less frequent the flooding, the more subtle the signs. I think in many cases, the engineers had no idea. They did the best they could, and they went back and rebuilt the line as needed. Or, as in the case of the original California Pacific line from Knights Landing on the Sacramento River to Marysville, they just decided they really didn't need the railroad across the swamp all that much. There were usually contingency plans for re-routing over another carrier, if they didn't happen to be in the same place.
And not just for floods but for blizzards as well. Trains were often delayed in the wintertime when there were heavy snows. There are many recorded instances. Had the term " year flood" even been invented in ??? David can speak the transcontinental construction, but I remember reading about the tracks being washed out in the Platte Valley several times causing, to them, serious delays.
So even by the turn of the 20th Century there wasn't much in the way of flood data from which to draw. Kansas City got flooded a lot, depending on your definition of a lot. The and Kansas and Missouri River floods rerouted traffic for a long time and not just around Kansas City.
What was the record for laying track? How Central Pacific laid ten miles of track in one day back in The all time record for most track laid was on April 28, when the Central Pacific Railroad laid 10 miles in one day. These rails weigh on an average five hundred and sixty pounds; and allowing fifty feet to each rail, the amount of iron borne by each man during the day of eleven hours was seventy-four tons!
This was without relay. The names of the men who performed this feat are justly a part of this record. If this is doubled to So the weight could be for one rail, but the length for two rails. Perspectives vary, and one website claims: Someone at the Central Pacific noticed the efficient work habits of Chinese. It was obvious that Chinese ingenuity could do the impossible, so the company decided to experiment with a Chinese construction crew.
Company managers also did something unheard of by American managers, they adapted the empowerment leadership style of the Chinese, giving full control and responsibility of the project to front line workers. As a result, track laying increased until it reached a record ten miles in one day , a record that still stands. First of all, Stillman wasn't there at the time and describes the event while on his way to the 'Last Spike' ceremony at Promontory so one can only assume that he has used information taken from the reports of others.
He really didn't do too badly except for his reporting of the rails being 50 feet in length and his estimate of 74 tons per man. I would guess that his use of the 50' is the result of a typographical error as he is the only one using that figure.
All the other reports report the rail lengths as 30'. Rail manufacturing had not developed to the point that iron quality was good enough that every rail could be cut to the same length and any rail the Iron Co. Shipping was also a problem as not all available ships could handle 30' rails. James Harvey Strobridge in an interview stated '' tons and '' rails were laid on April 28th, for a distance of ten miles and feet however he stated that the UP Engineers measured the distance so no errors would be made.
The actual figure accepted was ten miles and 56 lineal feet of track. Strobridge wasn't too far off on his recollection and that depends if no side tracks were laid for passing construction trains which no one ever addressed and his rails wasn't too bad either.
Throw in the possibility that all rails were not 30' but something shorter just adds more confusion. It would be my bet that J. They lost entire stacks of rail which were not found until the snow melted. The reporting of the event of ten miles of track in one day was embellished by everyone who reported the story to make it as interesting as they could. One fact that did come out of the days story was just how much weight eight strong men could handle in one day.
One fact that was not widely reported was that it took the work of three track bosses, H. Minkler, his two assistants, Frank Freitis and Mike Stanton to make it all work. Another crew of Irish the Chinese were graders, not track layers [see earlier photograph] or Mormons completed the spiking.
James Harvey Strobridge writes as follows: They ran it out to the edge of the car iron trucks , dropping it into place for the spikes too be driven, a man for each spike. When it was down the men walked to the same spike on the next rail, drove it and on to the next, all day.
Stillman's description], one can see that four men carried the rail, and four men spiked them down. Chris Graves' conclusion that "Chinese An experienced track worker could drive a spike in three blows, the visitors took upwards of ten.
Bowsher is quoted, 'the last [iron] spike was partly driven for Stanford and Durant by the Chinese'. Caxton reported 'Here we found a very large number of men at work — principally Chinese — laying the track Also, since the visitors were to 'drive' a last iron spike and, as amateurs, they would have had difficulty in starting the spikes, it is quite likely that the Chinese started a number of the iron spikes, as Bowsher stated that the last spike was partly driven for Stanford and Durant.
Who drove the last spike on the last replacement is unknown — possibly it was one of the Chinese workmen. The tools held by the other two workers perhaps indicate that they are Chinese track workers, not graders. If it is true, as the above suggests, that Chinese spikers were in Utah, it places in question the logical basis for Chris Graves' conclusion that Chinese could not have spiked the rails put in place by the 8 Irishmen during the ten mile day.
The stock was getting its breakfast of hay and barley. Trains were shunting in from the west with supplies and materials for the day's work. Foremen were galloping here and there on horseback giving or receiving orders. I have 3 wonderful adult children a daughter, and 2 sons , and an infant grandson. I"m a family man, and I love children.
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