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Animal sexual behaviour

the dating mind evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship

In earlier periods, bias tended to support what would now be described as conservative sexual mores. Introduction to some structures that are employed in organization of conversational interaction, such as turn-taking organization, organization of repair, and some basic sequence structures with limited expansions. Shumway states that on the one hand, romance is the part that offers adventure and intense emotions while offering the possibility to find the perfect mate. Students who will take Calculus are strongly encouraged to take Math instead of Math X. One organism inseminates the other. These behaviors can be considered either appetitive or aversive. The Kwai River is also furnished with an overpass and a little museum.

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To apply their understanding of these skills, students write summaries, essays synthesizing ideas from diverse sources, critiques of arguments, and research papers that focus on issues relevant to their majors. Study of language as an aspect of culture; the relation of habitual thought and behavior to language; and language and the classification of experience. After individually completing spreadsheet tutorials and assignments, students will then develop and apply their skills in a wide range of mini-projects and exams. Ideas to Foreign Citizenry. This course is a study of the derangement of bodily function as seen in diseased states. My tongue, every atom of my blood, form'd from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same, I, now thirty-seven years old in perfect health begin, Hoping to cease not till death. National Museum of Singapore,

This assumption is confirmed by the behaviour of males, who in the case of many species are prepared to work to get access to female animals, especially if the female animal is in oestrus, and males who for breeding purposes are used to having sperm collected become very eager, when the equipment they associate with the collection is taken out. There is nothing in female mammals ' anatomy or physiology that contradicts that stimulation of the sexual organs and mating is able to be a positive experience.

For instance, the clitoris acts in the same way as with women, and scientific studies have shown that the success of reproduction is improved by stimulation of clitoris on among other species cows and mares in connection with insemination, because it improves the transportation of the sperm due to contractions of the inner genitalia. This probably also applies to female animals of other animal species, and contractions in the inner genitals are seen e.

It is therefore reasonable to assume that sexual intercourse may be linked with a positive experience for female animals. Koinophilia is the love of the "normal" or phenotypically common from the Greek, koinos , meaning "the usual" or "common". The field of study of sexuality in non-human species was a long-standing taboo.

In earlier periods, bias tended to support what would now be described as conservative sexual mores. An example of overlooking behaviour relates to descriptions of giraffe mating:. When nine out of ten pairings occur between males, "[e]very male that sniffed a female was reported as sex, while anal intercourse with orgasm between males was only [categorized as] 'revolving around' dominance , competition or greetings.

In the 21st century, liberal social or sexual views are often projected upon animal subjects of research. Popular discussions of bonobos are a frequently cited example. Current research frequently expresses views such as that of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo , which in held an exhibition on animal sexuality:.

Many researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles. Other animal activities may be misinterpreted due to the frequency and context in which animals perform the behaviour.

For example, domestic ruminants display behaviours such as mounting and head-butting. This often occurs when the animals are establishing dominance relationships and are not necessarily sexually motivated. Careful analysis must be made to interpret what animal motivations are being expressed by those behaviours. Copulation is the union of the male and female sex organs , the innate sexual activity specifically organized to transmit male sperm into the body of the female.

In non-primate mammals for example, rodents , canines , felines , bovines , and equines , the anatomy of the reproductive organs and some circuits of the nervous system are specifically organized for heterosexual copulation. Alternate male strategies which allow small males to engage in cuckoldry can develop in species such as fish where spawning is dominated by large and aggressive males. Cuckoldry is a variant of polyandry , and can occur with sneak spawners.

A sneak spawner is a male that rushes in to join the spawning rush of a spawning pair. In salmon and trout, for example, jack males are common.

These are small silvery males that migrate upstream along with the standard, large, hook-nosed males and that spawn by sneaking into redds to release sperm simultaneously with a mated pair. This behaviour is an evolutionarily stable strategy for reproduction, because it is favoured by natural selection just like the "standard" strategy of large males.

Hermaphroditism occurs when a given individual in a species possesses both male and female reproductive organs, or can alternate between possessing first one, and then the other. Hermaphroditism is common in invertebrates but rare in vertebrates. It can be contrasted with gonochorism , where each individual in a species is either male or female, and remains that way throughout their lives.

Most fish are gonochorists, but hermaphroditism is known to occur in 14 families of teleost fishes. Usually hermaphrodites are sequential , meaning they can switch sex , usually from female to male protogyny. This can happen if a dominant male is removed from a group of females. The largest female in the harem can switch sex over a few days and replace the dominant male.

It is less common for a male to switch to a female protandry. Wrasses exhibit three different mating systems: Sexual cannibalism is a behaviour in which a female animal kills and consumes the male before, during, or after copulation.

Sexual cannibalism confers fitness advantages to both the male and female. Sex in a forceful or apparently coercive context has been documented in a variety of species. In some herbivorous herd species, or species where males and females are very different in size, the male dominates sexually by force and size. Some species of birds have been observed combining sexual intercourse with apparent violent assault; these include ducks , [73] [74] and geese.

When females emerge from their nest burrows, males sometimes force them to the ground and mate with them. Such forced copulations are made preferentially on females who are laying and who may therefore lay eggs fertilized by the male. In the Acilius genus of water beetles , an " evolutionary arms race " between the two sexes means that there is no courtship system for these beetles.

Their mating behaviours include males holding females underwater till exhausted, and allowing only occasional access to the surface to breathe for up to six hours to prevent them breeding with other males , and females which have a variety of body shapings to prevent males from gaining a grip. It has been reported that young male elephants in South Africa sexually coerced and killed rhinoceroses.

Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilisation. Technically, parthenogenesis it is not a behaviour, however, sexual behaviours may be involved. Whip-tailed lizard females have the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis and as such males are rare and sexual breeding non-standard.

Females engage in "pseudocopulation" [80] to stimulate ovulation , with their behaviour following their hormonal cycles; during low levels of oestrogen, these female lizards engage in "masculine" sexual roles. Those animals with currently high oestrogen levels assume "feminine" sexual roles.

Lizards that perform the courtship ritual have greater fecundity than those kept in isolation due to an increase in hormones triggered by the sexual behaviours.

So, even though asexual whiptail lizards populations lack males, sexual stimuli still increase reproductive success. It is rare to find true parthenogenesis in fishes, where females produce female offspring with no input from males. All-female species include the Texas silverside , Menidia clarkhubbsi [81] as well as a complex of Mexican mollies. Parthenogenesis has been recorded in 70 vertebrate species [82] including hammerhead sharks , [83] blacktip sharks , [84] amphibians [85] [86] and crayfish.

Unisexuality occurs when a species is all-male or all-female. Unisexuality occurs in some fish species, and can take complex forms. Squalius alburnoides , a minnow found in several river basins in Portugal and Spain, appears to be an all-male species. The existence of this species illustrates the potential complexity of mating systems in fish.

The species originated as a hybrid between two species, and is diploid , but not hermaphroditic. It can have triploid and tetraploid forms, including all-female forms that reproduce mainly through hybridogenesis. There is a range of behaviours that animals perform which appear to be sexually motivated but which can not result in reproduction.

Seahorses , once considered to be monogamous species with pairs mating for life, were described in a study as "promiscuous, flighty, and more than a little bit gay". Flirting was common up to 25 potential partners a day of both sexes ; only one species the British spiny seahorse included faithful representatives, and for these 5 of 17 were faithful, 12 were not. Bisexual behaviour was widespread and considered "both a great surprise and a shock", with big-bellied seahorses of both sexes not showing partner preference.

The bonobo is a fully bisexual species. Primatologist Frans de Waal believes that bonobos use sexual activity to resolve conflict between individuals. Male bottlenose dolphins have been observed working in pairs to follow or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive. The same pairs have also been observed engaging in intense sexual play with each other. Janet Mann, a professor of biology and psychology at Georgetown University, argues [] that the common same-sex behaviour among male dolphin calves is about bond formation and benefits the species evolutionarily.

They cite studies that have shown the dolphins later in life are bisexual and the male bonds forged from homosexuality work for protection as well as locating females with which to reproduce. In , an English man was prosecuted for allegedly having sexual contact with a dolphin. The female spotted hyena has a unique urinary-genital system , closely resembling the penis of the male, called a pseudo-penis.

Dominance relationships with strong sexual elements are routinely observed between related females. They are notable for using visible sexual arousal as a sign of submission but not dominance in males as well as females females have a sizable erectile clitoris.

Mammals mate by vaginal copulation. To achieve this, the male usually mounts the female from behind. During mating, a "copulatory tie" occurs in mammals such as fossas , [] canids [] and Japanese martens. The copulatory behavior of many mammalian species is affected by sperm competition. Invertebrates are often hermaphrodites. Some hermaphroditic land snails begin mating with an elaborate tactile courting ritual. The two snails circle around each other for up to six hours, touching with their tentacles, and biting lips and the area of the genital pore, which shows some preliminary signs of the eversion of the penis.

As the snails approach mating, hydraulic pressure builds up in the blood sinus surrounding an organ housing a sharpened dart. The dart is made of calcium carbonate or chitin , and is called a love dart. Each snail manoeuvres to get its genital pore in the best position, close to the other snail's body.

Then, when the body of one snail touches the other snail's genital pore, it triggers the firing of the love dart. The love darts are covered with a mucus that contains a hormone -like substance that facilitates the survival of the sperm. Penis fencing is a mating behaviour engaged in by certain species of flatworm , such as Pseudobiceros bedfordi. Species which engage in the practice are hermaphroditic, possessing both eggs and sperm-producing testes.

One organism inseminates the other. The sperm is absorbed through pores in the skin, causing fertilisation.

Corals can be both gonochoristic unisexual and hermaphroditic , each of which can reproduce sexually and asexually. Reproduction also allows corals to settle new areas. Corals predominantly reproduce sexually. The gametes fuse during fertilisation to form a microscopic larva called a planula , typically pink and elliptical in shape.

This synchrony is essential so that male and female gametes can meet. Corals must rely on environmental cues, varying from species to species, to determine the proper time to release gametes into the water. The cues involve lunar changes, sunset time, and possibly chemical signalling. Butterflies spend much time searching for mates. When the male spots a mate, he will fly closer and release pheromones.

He then performs a special courtship dance to attract the female. If the female appreciates the dancing she may join him. Then they join their bodies together end to end at their abdomens. Here, the male passes the sperm to the female's egg-laying tube, which will soon be fertilised by the sperm. Many animals make plugs of mucus to seal the female's orifice after mating.

Normally such plugs are secreted by the male, to block subsequent partners. In spiders the female can assist the process. They use these to pick their sperm up from their genitals and insert it into the female's sexual orifice, rather than copulating directly. On ten of these occasions the male's pedipalps then seemed to get stuck while he was transferring the sperm which is rarely the case in other species of spider , and he had great difficulty freeing himself.

In two of those ten instances, he was eaten as a result. Research into human evolution confirms that, in some cases, interspecies sexual activity may have been responsible for the evolution of new species speciation. Analysis of animal genes found evidence that after humans had diverged from other apes , interspecies mating nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool.

One possible explanation is that modern humans emerged from a hybrid of human and chimp populations. When close relatives mate, progeny may exhibit the detrimental effects of inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is predominantly caused by the homozygous expression of recessive deleterious alleles. Several examples of animal behaviour that reduce mating of close relatives and inbreeding depression are described next.

Reproductively active female naked mole-rats tend to associate with unfamiliar males usually non-kin , whereas reproductively inactive females do not discriminate. When mice inbreed with close relatives in their natural habitat, there is a significant detrimental effect on progeny survival. Thus there are fewer matings between mice sharing MUP haplotypes than would be expected if there were random mating. Meerkat females appear to be able to discriminate the odour of their kin from the odour of their non-kin.

When mating does occur between meerkat relatives, it often results in inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression was evident for a variety of traits: The grey-sided vole Myodes rufocanus exhibits male-biased dispersal as a means of avoiding incestuous matings. In natural populations of the bird Parus major great tit , inbreeding is likely avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative.

Toads display breeding site fidelity , as do many amphibians. Individuals that return to natal ponds to breed will likely encounter siblings as potential mates. Although incest is possible, Bufo americanus siblings rarely mate. These toads likely recognise and actively avoid close kins as mates. Advertisement vocalisations by males appear to serve as cues by which females recognise their kin.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sexual behaviour of non-human animals. In this course, students will learn the elements and principles of design and basic color theory used to solve visual design problems. This course will teach students the fundamentals of theoretical and applied perspective, structural and proportional drawing, light and shade, art vocabulary, and basic composition.

Students must own or have access to a digital single lens reflex camera.? Emphasis will be on discovering concise, communicative, and creative methods for presenting a variety of informational formats.

These will include information architecture, interface design, site structure, page structure, page design, typography, editorial style, graphics, and multimedia. While there will be some development with software tools, this is not a programming class. This course is designed for art majors with a graphic design emphasis. This is an online course that is required for all automotive majors, but open to students of other majors. It is designed to introduce students to some of the foundational principles and knowledge required to be successful in other automotive courses.

Students will learn how to usetest equipment todiagnose, and repair electrical circuit faults. They will also study batteries, starting systems, and charging systems. This course will introduce students to internal combustion engines and the systems that support them. Students will learn to perform engine condition tests and how to evaluate, diagnose, and repair issues with the fuel, ignition, cooling, and lubrication systems.

AUTO In this course, students will learn how computer controls affect the operation of the electrical systems in modern automobiles.

They will learn how various sensors, actuators, and electronic control units work. They will learn about network communications between the components. Students will be able to test, diagnose, and repair the various electrical systems ranging from power windows and heated seats to instrument clusters and driver information systems. AUTO and AUTO In this course, students will become familiar with how sensors, actuators, and electronic control units work together to optimize engine performance.

They will learn how to use scan tools to become more proficient at testing and diagnosing faults. Students will also reinforce engine condition testing and understanding of fuel, ignition, cooling, and lubrication systems. This course is designed to help new students prepare for meaningful internships and careers within the context of becoming disciple leaders.

Key areas of focus are: This course is an overview of all the functions of business, including human resource management, production, marketing, accounting, finance, and international business.

As an introductory course to business, many theories and principles will be touched upon. Students will also learn some important life skills, develop teamwork, and gain valuable exposure to the various career opportunities in business. This course is recommended for students wanting to gain an overview of business management, marketing, accounting, human resource management, and small business entrepreneurship.

In this course, students will develop and apply functional office skills in time management, interpersonal communications, records management, teamwork, and customer service. Students also learn how to plan meetings, take minutes, and use critical decision-making skills to identify and solve problems.

This is a service-learning course in which students are required to participate in weekly volunteer work in an office setting. This course offers an introduction on how to develop a clear vision of what matters most to students as they begin their entrepreneurial journey.

The course will also deliver practical life lessons and fundamental business tools required to become a successful entrepreneur. Students will develop some important mindsets in the area of thinking, learning and doing what the financially successful entrepreneurs do. This is an introductory course to familiarize non-business majors with the basic vocabulary and substantive knowledge of personal finance, financial institutions, and business finance.

The course will provide an opportunity to develop skills in effective communication, financial analysis, and problem solving. Ethics in the area of finance will be discussed. This course provides an overview of the core functions of business, including product development, marketing, operations, human resource management, accounting, finance, and international business.

This course is designed to provide students exposure to the various career opportunities in business and also recommended for non-business students interested in gaining an overview of business management, leadership, and small business entrepreneurship.

Students will acquire, develop and apply intermediate to advanced spreadsheet analysis skills in a business context. After individually completing spreadsheet tutorials and assignments, students will then develop and apply their skills in a wide range of mini-projects and exams. The mini-projects and exams, which are designed to be realistic and representative of business activities students might encounter in the workplace, will include elements of finance, marketing, and supply chain management.

This course provides a thorough understanding of Microsoft Word and enhances efficiency, effectiveness, and professionalism in users and documents. Students will customize and automate information using Microsoft Office Word, Excel, and Access.

Topics include navigation and format in business documents and envelopes, graphics, tables, charts, labels, themes, styles, forms, macros, and merging and sorting.

Students will gain advanced skills in word processing as they learn to merge documents,manage lists, sort text, manage page numbering, headers and footers, share documents, customize Quick Parts, customise AutoCorrect, customize themes, styles,protect documents,and create indexes, advanced tables,forms,and macros.

This course is designed for any student interested in building a web-based business. Students will go through the necessary steps to build and launch a web-based business that is capable of accepting online payments. This course is an introduction to legal environment in which businesses operate as well as an overview of laws impacting business.

Topics include understanding the legal system, contracts, ethics, intellectual property, antitrust, employment, business organizations, and securities.

Prior to this course, a student will have completed B This course is designed to introduce students to the basics of small business creation, understand the importance of creating systems, and expose students to the many career opportunities available in the field of entrepreneurship.

Students will learn about startups, buying existing businesses, franchises, and family run businesses. Through class discussions, entrepreneur cases, guest entrepreneurs, selected readings, and team projects, students will gain a clear understanding of entrepreneur opportunities. Each student will participate in actually starting a microbusiness during the semester, drafting a one page business plan on their own big idea and networking with entrepreneur mentors to support their entrepreneur idea.

Students must be registered for this course within the first two weeks of the semester they are completing the internship. For more information on how to register for an internship see the Business Management homepage.

This course is designed for students working full or part-time in business-related employment to gain introductory experience and understanding of the functions of a successful company.

Students must complete application and approval through the College of Business and Communication Career Services, contract with their employer to work for college credits, and work a minimum of 15 hours per week for a minimum of seven weeks. Other requirements include writing reports, submitting self- and supervisor evaluations, and adhering to BYU-Idaho standards and policies. Internships are exempt from tuition, but are charged this independent course fee. This introductory course in financial management provides a basic foundation for other courses in finance and business management.

Topics covered in this course include financial statement analysis, financial forecasting, leverage, working capital management, capital structure, capital budgeting, short and long-term financial management, sources of financing, time value of money, and cost of capital.

Introduces the fundamentals of rhetorical principles and writing practices using a number of typical business situations. During the course, students will produce effective business letters, memos, reports, and employment packages -- some of which will be created independently and some of which will involve collaborative efforts. This will prepare students for the demands of business careers that require significant time reading, drafting, and revising written communication. This course incorporates Organizational Effectiveness at three levels: Students will examine these areas: This course is a comprehensive introduction to the principles of marketing.

This course will cover marketing essentials such as consumer research, consumer segmentation, segment targeting and product positioning, new product development and introduction, marketing strategy, branding, marketing communications, pricing, and distribution.

Social media marketing prepares students to become proficient with various platforms while staying up-to-date on the latest best practices and exploring the power of social media marketing. This course provides students with practical, real-world experiences and proven social media marketing techniques and strategies.

This course in production and operations management has three primary purposes: This course will pursue these purposes using a variety of teaching techniques including readings, homework problems, qualitative and quantitative assessments, and in-class activities and simulations. This course is an overview of human resource management topics such as diversity, EEOC laws, recruiting, training, performance management, compensation and benefits, motivation, workplace organizational design, difficult interactions, employee relations, and safety.

The course also considers organizational behavior topics in the context of human resource management such as teamwork, power dynamics, innovation, and groupthink.

Intended to help students become better disciple leaders by? Learn how to become a change maker and embrace some element of the social spectrum -- anything from working for a non-profit to starting a hybrid or social business. Covers the broad spectrum of how individuals and organizations are solving the world? Understand the different ways to make a difference in the word when the opportunity presents itself to give back.

Learn about the broad spectrum of social innovation including: Hybrid class; all course content will be completed outside of class. This course is an overview of international business designed to provide a global perspective on international trade and direct investment. Reviews international cultural, political, legal and economic environments and their effect on marketing, production, and human resource management strategy.

Ideally, a student will have completed B before moving on to B This course is designed as an introduction to the process of perceiving an opportunity and creating an organization to pursue it. Working alone and in teams students will learn to plan, finance, launch, manage, and harvest a new venture. In order to integrate ideas across departments and colleges, this course will be open to students in engineering, computer science, and business management.

All students who desire to lead a business plan team will have an opportunity to describe their ventures in the early class sessions to facilitate team member recruiting. Class discussion, readings, lectures, and projects are learning tools. A student's project is developed throughout this course and involves completing a new venture plan and financial forecast.

Each team business plan also becomes a live case for the purposes of class discussion. Required for all Business Management students. For more information on how to register for an internship see the Business Management home page. Students will find a professional business management internship in an approved business, complete the application and obtain approval through the College of Business and Communication Career Services, be enrolled in the course, write reports, submit evaluations, and complete at least hours of work in seven weeks or more.

During their internship students will gain a greater vision of becoming a business professional and establish career networking links. Students will earn three credits and may receive compensation from the employer and letters of recommendation from both the employer and BYU-Idaho. This introductory course in investments provides a basic foundation for advanced courses in investments and securities analysis.

Topics covered in this course include elements of investments, portfolio theory, debt securities, equities, security analysis, derivative markets, investment processes, behavioral finance, and technical analysis. This course provides a focused look at the laws and regulations that impact finance professionals. The course builds on a general understanding of business law concepts to focus on areas of law most relevant to finance including corporate governance, shareholder rights, securities regulation, bankruptcy, and secured transactions.

We believe that governments were instituted of God for the benefit of man, and that he holds men accountable for their acts in relation to them, both in making laws and administering them, for the good and safety of society. Doctrine and Covenants This course provides a focused look at the primary legal issues you will encounter in a new business venture. This course builds on a general understanding of business law concepts to focus on areas of law most relevant to New Ventures including employees stock option plans, executive compensation and employment contracts, non-disclosure agreements, choice and creation of business entities, business licensing, statutory requirements for corporations, security laws that apply to private financing, mergers and acquisitions, review of contracts, torts, and employment laws.

If a student is a business major and changes their emphasis, they must transfer into the appropriate law course, for instance Marketing Law or Finance Law.

Non-business majors are welcome to take this course. This course covers topics, skills, and vocabulary used in real estate. An introductory course to familiarize students with the basic vocabulary and a substantive knowledge of personal financial planning principles.

The course provides an overview of options available to successfully finance new ventures. Debt, equity, and self-funding financing alternatives will be explored. The roles of effective business planning, forecasting, valuation, negotiation, and team building also will be discussed within the context of new venture financing.

This course is as much about becoming as it is about knowing and doing. It is well suited for those who desire to pursue entrepreneurship at some point in their lives, but it is equally valuable for students who want to gain a broad perspective of business management and leadership principles.

Through a series of case studies and other activities, students will experience many of the challenges faced by entrepreneurs every day--deciding whether or not a new venture is a good idea, how to pursue the venture, and how to navigate the murky waters of financing, negotiating with partners, investors and suppliers.

You will develop critical thinking and analytical skills, as well as some essential quantitative skills. This course is the first semester of a year-long Introduction to Biology course. It includes the areas of biological chemistry, cellular structure and function, and metabolism.

This course is a prerequisite for most other upper division courses in Biology. In this course, students will study the microorganisms especially bacteria and viruses , their metabolism and requirements for growth, the methods used to grow and study them, the disease processes caused by them, methods used to control their growth, and the immune response to infection and disease.

This is an introductory course in human anatomy and physiology for non-science and non-health professions majors. This is the first part of a two semester course to prepare students for further study in the health and medical fields. Specifically designed for students of nursing and the allied health professions. Includes basic biochemistry, structure and function of the cell, tissues, skeleton, muscles, and nervous systems of the body. Not acceptable for biology major credit. This is the laboratory accompaniment of the first part of a two-semester course studying the anatomy and physiology of the human body.

While the lecture mainly focuses on physiology, most of the anatomical learning occurs in this lab. The course is designed for students of nursing and the allied health professions. Students wishing to apply to the nursing program must complete both the lecture and lab components. This course is not acceptable for biology major credit.

These students should take Bio and instead of and This is the second part of a two-semester course to prepare students for further study in the health and medical fields. Includes structure and function of the senses, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, endocrine and reproductive systems. This course consists of an investigation of the transmission of heritable material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Topics include classical genetics patterns of inheritance, linkage and chromosome mapping , molecular biology DNA structure and function, gene expression, biotechnology , and population genetics. This course is a study of the derangement of bodily function as seen in diseased states. In this course, basic Darwinian evolution and the history of evolutionary thought is presented.

This course includes the study of the scientific processes through which both microevolution and macroevolution occur, the history of life on earth, phylogenetics, cladistics, molecular evolution, sexual selection, population genetics, and rates of evolution.

An introductory course that covers fundamental concepts of chemistry for students preparing for studies in nursing, paramedicine, agriculture, biology, exercise physiology, health science and other disciplines that require a one semester introduction to chemistry. This course serves as a prerequisite for CHEM This course is an online introduction to chemistry lab that illustrates principles of chemistry and laboratory techniques.

Participation in the course requires reading pre-lab materials, completion of a pre-lab quiz, watching videos demonstrating laboratory procedures, recording data and observations in electronic format, and completing a post-lab quiz. This course is a theoretical, academically oriented course focusing on the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development of the child from conception through adolescence.

Students will explore the influences of family, peers, and social institutions on the child's development. This course involves an in-depth study of the child from conception to three years of age. Students will beecome familiar with various theoretical perspectives in each of the developmental domains of infancy and toddlerhood. Students will also explore the influence of mothers and fathers, and the parenting and teaching techniques that are most appropriate for infants and toddlers.

This course will explore in depth the relationships between theory, core developmental concepts, and practice in the field of child development from preschool through middle childhood. Learning and application of various theoretical perspectives to explain and interpret children's development will be explored.

Coursework includes reading, summarizing, and analyzing current research and developmental topics of interest. Emphasis will be on the application of current research. In this course the adolescent experience will be examined within a developmental and social context, with emphasis on the importance of the family. Other contexts to be considered include peers, religion, community, schools, and broader cultural systems.

This course is an introduction to the use of spreadsheets in business. Emphasis is on learning spreadsheet literacy concepts and a popular spreadsheet application to solve business problems. This course covers the basic elements of database management systems. It introduces students to the concepts of logical and physical relationships in a data model and the concepts of inner and outer joins. Students will use a computer aided software engineering CASE tool to design, create, and query a database.

This course is an introduction to the basic concepts of computers and information technology. Students will learn the basics of computer hardware and the binary and hexadecimal number systems, design algorithms to solve simple computing problems, and will write computer programs using Boolean logic, control structures, and functions. The course deals with concepts and principles of database theory, application and management technologies.

It focuses on the logical and physical database design and implementation. SQL will be used to query and transact against a sample database. This course teaches general networking principles to provide an understanding of network fundamentals, LAN switching technologies, routing technologies, infrastructure services, and infrastructure maintenance. Students will learn the configuration and use of networking devices and protocols including LAN switching technologies, IPv4 and IPv6 routing technologies, WAN technologies, infrastructure services, and infrastructure maintenance.

In this course you will learn the basic concepts associated with Object-Oriented Programming, Java programming language, and how to design, develop and test real-world applications. You apply what you have learned by designing, developing and testing a text based role playing game. With these tools in your belt you will have an opportunity to write SPAs that will run inside a web browser. You will also learn about and be assessed on your professionalism.

This course teaches the concepts of systems analysis and design for those desiring to work in the field of information technology. Initially, an overview of an information system and the software development life cycle SDLC processes are covered. Then, each phase of the SDLC process is examined in depth, and real experience is gained through a project. The purpose of this course is to provide the student with an overview of the field of Information Security and Assurance.

Students will be exposed to the spectrum of Security activities, methods, methodologies, and procedures. It provides an introduction to the fundamentals of network security, including compliance and operational security; threats and vulnerabilities; application, data, and host security; access control and identity management; and cryptography.

The course covers new topics in network security as well, including psychological approaches to social engineering attacks, Web application attacks, penetration testing, data loss prevention, cloud computing security and application programming development security. This course teaches the concepts of database programming. It teaches how to write stored functions and procedures inside the database, how to use collections, how to use embedded objects, how to use transaction control mechanics, how to import large comma separated files, and large text files into a database.

It explores the uses of the database as a data repository for web-based applications. This programming course focuses on constructing dynamic web sites using PHP with databases and design patterns.

The concepts introduced in the Web Frontend Development course are expected to be continued and implemented. This course covers basic network operating system principals and Linux commands.

This course covers the basics of design, coding, and creating client-server applications. You will learn about some Android Java libraries and standard Java libraries you haven't seen before and see how they work. With these tools in your belt you will have an opportunity to write an Android client and standard Java Servlet that will run inside the Tomcat server.

This course leverages a student's fundamental software development and core web technology background with the Microsoft. Students will build upon a C foundation using the ASP. NET framework to design and develop scalable, standards-based web sites, applications, and services using contemporary methodologies and established design patterns. Team work and programming deliverables will be required. This course introduces concepts, issues, approaches, tools, techniques, and technologies applicable to the management of projects.

Projects can be defined as any temporary endeavor undertaken to create unique product, service, or result. The course explores how a manager can plan, organize, implement and control non-routine activities to achieve cost, schedule and performance objectives. This course provides an introduction to Business Intelligence, including the processes, methodologies, infrastructure, and current practices used to transform business data into useful information and support business decision-making and strategy.

Business Intelligence requires foundational knowledge in data storage and retrieval, thus this course will review logical data models for both database management systems and data warehouses. Students will learn to extract and manipulate data from these systems and assess security-related issues.

Data mining, visualization, and statistical analysis along with reporting options such as management dashboards are addressed. This course also provides an introduction to Analytics, or the automation of analysis, including an overview of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods and methods used to automate these processes for speed, interactivity, and quality reliability and validity.

Several examples of modern types of analytics will be introduced and explored such as descriptive, diagnostic, discovery, predictive, and prescriptive approaches. This course is designed to allow each student to design, build, and implement a project of their own choosing to further and accelerate individual learning and career goals. Students will identify an area of interest and propose a project plan to pursue and achieve those goals primarily through analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance activities in a variety of project management styles and formats or pursuit of and completion of professional-level and industry-recognized certifications.

Students will work with the faculty and mentors from professional industry for support and approval in achieving project objectives. Students may work individually or within teams, but must be able to account for personal contributions and growth.

This is a capstone experience for the Computer Information Technology major. There are two options available: A research paper on a relevant Information Technology topic or participate in service learning. The purpose of this course is to build on the knowledge that students have learned in the Computer Information Technology major.

This course is designed to be a capstone experience where a student applies the skills they have learned in information systems in a real world environment. This course is an exploration of the fundamental principles and practices of effective informative and persuasive speeches.

This course examines basic elements of public speaking including increasing speaker confidence, ethics of speaking, audience analysis and adaptation, appropriate methods of delivery, researching supporting materials, effective use of presentational aids, and effective outlining and delivery of speeches. This course is a practical application of the design principles and rules of typography to produce effective visual media. This is a hybrid course with a blend of in-class and online learning to explore the diverse skills and technologies involved in the visual design process.

Students produce a portfolio of projects including fliers, ads, edited images, logos, stationery, and brochures to demonstrate design proficiency and expertise using industry-standard technology. This course surveys historical and contemporary mass media and examines their current situation and trends, with particular emphasis on concurrent impacts between the media and society. Principal media theory is also explored. This course examines basic elements and theory of human communication in a practical, relevant setting.

Students will explore varied facets of interpersonal process with emphasis on improving communication skills and interpersonal relationships. For Non-Communication majors, this course helps give a basic foundation in interpersonal communication and public speaking skills and principles.

Through a combination of exercises and class discussions, students develop the tools to continually work toward more effective communication. This course is an analysis of communication principles and practices in organizations from a theoretical perspective. Students will review career opportunities in the field after learning methods to improve communication practices. This course explores key principles and skills that will facilitate a student's move from competency in classroom presentations to excellence in professional presentations.

This course will emphasize audience-centered strategies in the planning, creating, slide design, and delivery of a variety of realistic presentations in a range of professional environments, including conference room, lecture hall, and local business settings. This course is an exploration of the methodological and mathematical tools and principles used in evaluating, designing, and executing communication and media research.

A variety of projects and assignments will explore the fundamentals of research such as sampling, research design, appropriate statistical tests, focus groups, surveys, polls, and appropriate use of secondary research sources. Additionally, students will develop proficiency in data collection and analysis tools of Microsoft Excel. This course will provide students with information on internships and careers within their chosen field.

Students will learn how to position themselves and successfully apply for these opportunities. Students will attend campus career events and workshops to help them develop a resume, portfolio, and professional network database that will aid them in their post-graduation objectives, as well as learn about professional expectations and conduct.

This course gives students experience in the various aspects and fields of professional communication by applying principles learned in their coursework to outside-of-class projects and work environments. Projects are primarily self-directed with minimal supervision, and students do not meet collectively as a class on a regular basis.

Communication majors may take any combination of R, R and R practicum courses in any sequence to fulfill their graduation requirements. This course requires students to recognize and practice legal reasoning in relation to issues of relevance to communication professionals. Students will learn to identify elements present in cases concerning libel, privacy, and intellectual property.

Additionally, students will consider the legal constraints associated with commercial expression. Finally, students will explore ethical questions likely to arise within the field of professional communication, which cannot be adequately answered by legal means. Students will develop strategies for answering those questions and learn to apply relevant ethical principles as they do so. This course is a technical introduction to search-engine optimization and standards-based web design and production.

This course will teach students to strategically decide how best to visually communicate an engaging integrated message across the appropriate social media channels to reach the intended audience.

Students will be introduced to and create a variety of solutions to clearly communicate visual online messages. This course encourages students to use logos, pathos, and ethos to extend their reach of influence by exploring means of achieving common ground among competing interests in emphasizing the critical thinking skills necessary to understand and communicate about complex, controversial issues in non-confrontational ways either written or oral, and culminates in a team-community-action project.

This course will teach students the theory needed to gain a hands-on experience to manage conflicts while using principled negotiation in a variety of personal and professional contexts. Topics in this course include conflict management strategies, negotiation, third-party intervention, and relevant strategies for effective leadership in the workplace, in interpersonal relationships, and with families.

This course is a specialized practicum that trains students in targeted skill, software and knowledge areas. It includes regular instruction, class times and assignments. Students will learn how employee safety is critical to the successful completion of any construction project.

This course introduces students to OSHA policies, procedures, and standards, as well as construction safety and health principles. Special emphasis will be placed on recognizing the most common safety hazards in the construction industry. Upon satisfying attendance requirements, students will receive an OSHA hour construction course completion card.

The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to the principles of construction cost estimates, including organizing and planning an estimate, developing material and labor databases, preparing accurate quantity takeoffs, and developing an understanding of overhead and profit. Students in this course learn the objectives that define a successful project using varying delivery methods in commercial building construction. Students will learn how to use the tools the project manager uses to successfully manage the construction of a building project.

This course provides an introduction to computer programming intended for people with no programming experience. Have you outstript the rest? It is a trifle, they will more than arrive there every one, and still pass on. I am he that walks with the tender and growing night, I call to the earth and sea half-held by the night. Press close bare-bosom'd night--press close magnetic nourishing night! Night of south winds--night of the large few stars!

Still nodding night--mad naked summer night. Smile O voluptuous cool-breath'd earth! Earth of the slumbering and liquid trees! Earth of departed sunset--earth of the mountains misty-topt! Earth of the vitreous pour of the full moon just tinged with blue! Earth of shine and dark mottling the tide of the river! Earth of the limpid gray of clouds brighter and clearer for my sake! Far-swooping elbow'd earth--rich apple-blossom'd earth!

Smile, for your lover comes. Prodigal, you have given me love--therefore I to you give love! O unspeakable passionate love. I resign myself to you also--I guess what you mean, I behold from the beach your crooked fingers, I believe you refuse to go back without feeling of me, We must have a turn together, I undress, hurry me out of sight of the land, Cushion me soft, rock me in billowy drowse, Dash me with amorous wet, I can repay you.

Sea of stretch'd ground-swells, Sea breathing broad and convulsive breaths, Sea of the brine of life and of unshovell'd yet always-ready graves, Howler and scooper of storms, capricious and dainty sea, I am integral with you, I too am of one phase and of all phases. Partaker of influx and efflux I, extoller of hate and conciliation, Extoller of amies and those that sleep in each others' arms. I am he attesting sympathy, Shall I make my list of things in the house and skip the house that supports them?

I am not the poet of goodness only, I do not decline to be the poet of wickedness also. What blurt is this about virtue and about vice? Evil propels me and reform of evil propels me, I stand indifferent, My gait is no fault-finder's or rejecter's gait, I moisten the roots of all that has grown.

Did you fear some scrofula out of the unflagging pregnancy? Did you guess the celestial laws are yet to be work'd over and rectified? I find one side a balance and the antipedal side a balance, Soft doctrine as steady help as stable doctrine, Thoughts and deeds of the present our rouse and early start. This minute that comes to me over the past decillions, There is no better than it and now. What behaved well in the past or behaves well to-day is not such wonder, The wonder is always and always how there can be a mean man or an infidel.

And mine a word of the modern, the word En-Masse. A word of the faith that never balks, Here or henceforward it is all the same to me, I accept Time absolutely. It alone is without flaw, it alone rounds and completes all, That mystic baffling wonder alone completes all.

I accept Reality and dare not question it, Materialism first and last imbuing. Hurrah for positive science! Fetch stonecrop mixt with cedar and branches of lilac, This is the lexicographer, this the chemist, this made a grammar of the old cartouches, These mariners put the ship through dangerous unknown seas.

This is the geologist, this works with the scalper, and this is a mathematician. Gentlemen, to you the first honors always! Your facts are useful, and yet they are not my dwelling, I but enter by them to an area of my dwelling.

Less the reminders of properties told my words, And more the reminders they of life untold, and of freedom and extrication, And make short account of neuters and geldings, and favor men and women fully equipt, And beat the gong of revolt, and stop with fugitives and them that plot and conspire. Unscrew the locks from the doors! Unscrew the doors themselves from their jambs! Whoever degrades another degrades me, And whatever is done or said returns at last to me.

Through me the afflatus surging and surging, through me the current and index. I speak the pass-word primeval, I give the sign of democracy, By God! I will accept nothing which all cannot have their counterpart of on the same terms.

Through me many long dumb voices, Voices of the interminable generations of prisoners and slaves, Voices of the diseas'd and despairing and of thieves and dwarfs, Voices of cycles of preparation and accretion, And of the threads that connect the stars, and of wombs and of the father-stuff, And of the rights of them the others are down upon, Of the deform'd, trivial, flat, foolish, despised, Fog in the air, beetles rolling balls of dung.

Through me forbidden voices, Voices of sexes and lusts, voices veil'd and I remove the veil, Voices indecent by me clarified and transfigur'd.

I do not press my fingers across my mouth, I keep as delicate around the bowels as around the head and heart, Copulation is no more rank to me than death is. I believe in the flesh and the appetites, Seeing, hearing, feeling, are miracles, and each part and tag of me is a miracle.

Divine am I inside and out, and I make holy whatever I touch or am touch'd from, The scent of these arm-pits aroma finer than prayer, This head more than churches, bibles, and all the creeds. If I worship one thing more than another it shall be the spread of my own body, or any part of it, Translucent mould of me it shall be you! Shaded ledges and rests it shall be you! Firm masculine colter it shall be you! Whatever goes to the tilth of me it shall be you!

You my rich blood! Breast that presses against other breasts it shall be you! My brain it shall be your occult convolutions! Root of wash'd sweet-flag!

Mix'd tussled hay of head, beard, brawn, it shall be you! Trickling sap of maple, fibre of manly wheat, it shall be you! Sun so generous it shall be you! Vapors lighting and shading my face it shall be you!

You sweaty brooks and dews it shall be you! Winds whose soft-tickling genitals rub against me it shall be you!

Broad muscular fields, branches of live oak, loving lounger in my winding paths, it shall be you! Hands I have taken, face I have kiss'd, mortal I have ever touch'd, it shall be you. I dote on myself, there is that lot of me and all so luscious, Each moment and whatever happens thrills me with joy, I cannot tell how my ankles bend, nor whence the cause of my faintest wish, Nor the cause of the friendship I emit, nor the cause of the friendship I take again.

That I walk up my stoop, I pause to consider if it really be, A morning-glory at my window satisfies me more than the metaphysics of books. To behold the day-break! The little light fades the immense and diaphanous shadows, The air tastes good to my palate. Hefts of the moving world at innocent gambols silently rising freshly exuding, Scooting obliquely high and low.

Something I cannot see puts upward libidinous prongs, Seas of bright juice suffuse heaven. The earth by the sky staid with, the daily close of their junction, The heav'd challenge from the east that moment over my head, The mocking taunt, See then whether you shall be master!

We also ascend dazzling and tremendous as the sun, We found our own O my soul in the calm and cool of the daybreak. My voice goes after what my eyes cannot reach, With the twirl of my tongue I encompass worlds and volumes of worlds. Speech is the twin of my vision, it is unequal to measure itself, It provokes me forever, it says sarcastically, Walt you contain enough, why don't you let it out then? Come now I will not be tantalized, you conceive too much of articulation, Do you not know O speech how the buds beneath you are folded?

Waiting in gloom, protected by frost, The dirt receding before my prophetical screams, I underlying causes to balance them at last, My knowledge my live parts, it keeping tally with the meaning of all things, Happiness, which whoever hears me let him or her set out in search of this day.

My final merit I refuse you, I refuse putting from me what I really am, Encompass worlds, but never try to encompass me, I crowd your sleekest and best by simply looking toward you.

Writing and talk do not prove me, I carry the plenum of proof and every thing else in my face, With the hush of my lips I wholly confound the skeptic. I hear bravuras of birds, bustle of growing wheat, gossip of flames, clack of sticks cooking my meals, I hear the sound I love, the sound of the human voice, I hear all sounds running together, combined, fused or following, Sounds of the city and sounds out of the city, sounds of the day and night, Talkative young ones to those that like them, the loud laugh of work-people at their meals, The angry base of disjointed friendship, the faint tones of the sick, The judge with hands tight to the desk, his pallid lips pronouncing a death-sentence, The heave'e'yo of stevedores unlading ships by the wharves, the refrain of the anchor-lifters, The ring of alarm-bells, the cry of fire, the whirr of swift-streaking engines and hose-carts with premonitory tinkles and color'd lights, The steam-whistle, the solid roll of the train of approaching cars, The slow march play'd at the head of the association marching two and two, They go to guard some corpse, the flag-tops are draped with black muslin.

I hear the violoncello, 'tis the young man's heart's complaint, I hear the key'd cornet, it glides quickly in through my ears, It shakes mad-sweet pangs through my belly and breast. I hear the chorus, it is a grand opera, Ah this indeed is music--this suits me.

A tenor large and fresh as the creation fills me, The orbic flex of his mouth is pouring and filling me full. I hear the train'd soprano what work with hers is this? The orchestra whirls me wider than Uranus flies, It wrenches such ardors from me I did not know I possess'd them, It sails me, I dab with bare feet, they are lick'd by the indolent waves, I am cut by bitter and angry hail, I lose my breath, Steep'd amid honey'd morphine, my windpipe throttled in fakes of death, At length let up again to feel the puzzle of puzzles, And that we call Being.

Round and round we go, all of us, and ever come back thither, If nothing lay more develop'd the quahaug in its callous shell were enough. Mine is no callous shell, I have instant conductors all over me whether I pass or stop, They seize every object and lead it harmlessly through me. I merely stir, press, feel with my fingers, and am happy, To touch my person to some one else's is about as much as I can stand. The sentries desert every other part of me, They have left me helpless to a red marauder, They all come to the headland to witness and assist against me.

I am given up by traitors, I talk wildly, I have lost my wits, I and nobody else am the greatest traitor, I went myself first to the headland, my own hands carried me there. Did it make you ache so, leaving me? Parting track'd by arriving, perpetual payment of perpetual loan, Rich showering rain, and recompense richer afterward. Sprouts take and accumulate, stand by the curb prolific and vital, Landscapes projected masculine, full-sized and golden. Logic and sermons never convince, The damp of the night drives deeper into my soul.

Only what proves itself to every man and woman is so, Only what nobody denies is so. A minute and a drop of me settle my brain, I believe the soggy clods shall become lovers and lamps, And a compend of compends is the meat of a man or woman, And a summit and flower there is the feeling they have for each other, And they are to branch boundlessly out of that lesson until it becomes omnific, And until one and all shall delight us, and we them.

I find I incorporate gneiss, coal, long-threaded moss, fruits, grains, esculent roots, And am stucco'd with quadrupeds and birds all over, And have distanced what is behind me for good reasons, But call any thing back again when I desire it. In vain the speeding or shyness, In vain the plutonic rocks send their old heat against my approach, In vain the mastodon retreats beneath its own powder'd bones, In vain objects stand leagues off and assume manifold shapes, In vain the ocean settling in hollows and the great monsters lying low, In vain the buzzard houses herself with the sky, In vain the snake slides through the creepers and logs, In vain the elk takes to the inner passes of the woods, In vain the razor-bill'd auk sails far north to Labrador, I follow quickly, I ascend to the nest in the fissure of the cliff.

They do not sweat and whine about their condition, They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins, They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God, Not one is dissatisfied, not one is demented with the mania of owning things, Not one kneels to another, nor to his kind that lived thousands of years ago, Not one is respectable or unhappy over the whole earth. So they show their relations to me and I accept them, They bring me tokens of myself, they evince them plainly in their possession.

I wonder where they get those tokens, Did I pass that way huge times ago and negligently drop them? Myself moving forward then and now and forever, Gathering and showing more always and with velocity, Infinite and omnigenous, and the like of these among them, Not too exclusive toward the reachers of my remembrancers, Picking out here one that I love, and now go with him on brotherly terms.

A gigantic beauty of a stallion, fresh and responsive to my caresses, Head high in the forehead, wide between the ears, Limbs glossy and supple, tail dusting the ground, Eyes full of sparkling wickedness, ears finely cut, flexibly moving. His nostrils dilate as my heels embrace him, His well-built limbs tremble with pleasure as we race around and return.

I but use you a minute, then I resign you, stallion, Why do I need your paces when I myself out-gallop them? Even as I stand or sit passing faster than you. My ties and ballasts leave me, my elbows rest in sea-gaps, I skirt sierras, my palms cover continents, I am afoot with my vision.

I visit the orchards of spheres and look at the product, And look at quintillions ripen'd and look at quintillions green. I fly those flights of a fluid and swallowing soul, My course runs below the soundings of plummets. I help myself to material and immaterial, No guard can shut me off, no law prevent me. I anchor my ship for a little while only, My messengers continually cruise away or bring their returns to me. I go hunting polar furs and the seal, leaping chasms with a pike-pointed staff, clinging to topples of brittle and blue.

I ascend to the foretruck, I take my place late at night in the crow's-nest, We sail the arctic sea, it is plenty light enough, Through the clear atmosphere I stretch around on the wonderful beauty, The enormous masses of ice pass me and I pass them, the scenery is plain in all directions, The white-topt mountains show in the distance, I fling out my fancies toward them, We are approaching some great battle-field in which we are soon to be engaged, We pass the colossal outposts of the encampment, we pass with still feet and caution, Or we are entering by the suburbs some vast and ruin'd city, The blocks and fallen architecture more than all the living cities of the globe.

I am a free companion, I bivouac by invading watchfires, I turn the bridgroom out of bed and stay with the bride myself, I tighten her all night to my thighs and lips. My voice is the wife's voice, the screech by the rail of the stairs, They fetch my man's body up dripping and drown'd.

I understand the large hearts of heroes, The courage of present times and all times, How the skipper saw the crowded and rudderless wreck of the steamship, and Death chasing it up and down the storm, How he knuckled tight and gave not back an inch, and was faithful of days and faithful of nights, And chalk'd in large letters on a board, Be of good cheer, we will not desert you; How he follow'd with them and tack'd with them three days and would not give it up, How he saved the drifting company at last, How the lank loose-gown'd women look'd when boated from the side of their prepared graves, How the silent old-faced infants and the lifted sick, and the sharp-lipp'd unshaved men; All this I swallow, it tastes good, I like it well, it becomes mine, I am the man, I suffer'd, I was there.

The disdain and calmness of martyrs, The mother of old, condemn'd for a witch, burnt with dry wood, her children gazing on, The hounded slave that flags in the race, leans by the fence, blowing, cover'd with sweat, The twinges that sting like needles his legs and neck, the murderous buckshot and the bullets, All these I feel or am.

I am the hounded slave, I wince at the bite of the dogs, Hell and despair are upon me, crack and again crack the marksmen, I clutch the rails of the fence, my gore dribs, thinn'd with the ooze of my skin, I fall on the weeds and stones, The riders spur their unwilling horses, haul close, Taunt my dizzy ears and beat me violently over the head with whip-stocks.

Agonies are one of my changes of garments, I do not ask the wounded person how he feels, I myself become the wounded person, My hurts turn livid upon me as I lean on a cane and observe.

I am the mash'd fireman with breast-bone broken, Tumbling walls buried me in their debris, Heat and smoke I inspired, I heard the yelling shouts of my comrades, I heard the distant click of their picks and shovels, They have clear'd the beams away, they tenderly lift me forth. I lie in the night air in my red shirt, the pervading hush is for my sake, Painless after all I lie exhausted but not so unhappy, White and beautiful are the faces around me, the heads are bared of their fire-caps, The kneeling crowd fades with the light of the torches.

Distant and dead resuscitate, They show as the dial or move as the hands of me, I am the clock myself. I am an old artillerist, I tell of my fort's bombardment, I am there again. Again the long roll of the drummers, Again the attacking cannon, mortars, Again to my listening ears the cannon responsive. I take part, I see and hear the whole, The cries, curses, roar, the plaudits for well-aim'd shots, The ambulanza slowly passing trailing its red drip, Workmen searching after damages, making indispensable repairs, The fall of grenades through the rent roof, the fan-shaped explosion, The whizz of limbs, heads, stone, wood, iron, high in the air.

Again gurgles the mouth of my dying general, he furiously waves with his hand, He gasps through the clot Mind not me--mind--the entrenchments. Retreating they had form'd in a hollow square with their baggage for breastworks, Nine hundred lives out of the surrounding enemies, nine times their number, was the price they took in advance, Their colonel was wounded and their ammunition gone, They treated for an honorable capitulation, receiv'd writing and seal, gave up their arms and march'd back prisoners of war.

They were the glory of the race of rangers, Matchless with horse, rifle, song, supper, courtship, Large, turbulent, generous, handsome, proud, and affectionate, Bearded, sunburnt, drest in the free costume of hunters, Not a single one over thirty years of age. The second First-day morning they were brought out in squads and massacred, it was beautiful early summer, The work commenced about five o'clock and was over by eight. None obey'd the command to kneel, Some made a mad and helpless rush, some stood stark and straight, A few fell at once, shot in the temple or heart, the living and dead lay together, The maim'd and mangled dug in the dirt, the new-comers saw them there, Some half-kill'd attempted to crawl away, These were despatch'd with bayonets or batter'd with the blunts of muskets, A youth not seventeen years old seiz'd his assassin till two more came to release him, The three were all torn and cover'd with the boy's blood.

At eleven o'clock began the burning of the bodies; That is the tale of the murder of the four hundred and twelve young men. Would you learn who won by the light of the moon and stars? List to the yarn, as my grandmother's father the sailor told it to me. Our foe was no sulk in his ship I tell you, said he, His was the surly English pluck, and there is no tougher or truer, and never was, and never will be; Along the lower'd eve he came horribly raking us.

We closed with him, the yards entangled, the cannon touch'd, My captain lash'd fast with his own hands. We had receiv'd some eighteen pound shots under the water, On our lower-gun-deck two large pieces had burst at the first fire, killing all around and blowing up overhead.

Iamges: the dating mind evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship

the dating mind evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship

Elsevier Health Sciences UK. I hear you whispering there O stars of heaven, O suns--O grass of graves--O perpetual transfers and promotions, If you do not say any thing how can I say any thing?

the dating mind evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship

Champion of the Kingdom. Causes, Correlates, and Conflict". In that sense, it does resonate with capitalism and cynicism native to post-modernity.

the dating mind evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship

The Secret Cases of Sigmund Freud. Investigation of media persuasion and entertainment appeal through three intersecting approaches: Students will explore varied facets of interpersonal process with emphasis on improving the dating mind evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship skills and interpersonal relationships. Love Is The Strongest Bond. The Adventures of Mnid, the Erotic Vampire. The Rise and Rise of Best dating website 100 free Golden. Demonstrate safe internet use, internet safety and proper digital citizenship Develop several case studies of proper digital copyright usage Use a computer operating system to access computer applications and organize information, use the essential features of spreadsheet, use the essential features of word processors, use the essential features of presentations, and define what a cloud base technologies is and demonstrate the use and understanding of a cloud base collaborative tool.